Plagiarism is considered academic dishonesty and a breach of journalistic ethics. It is subject to sanctions like expulsion.
Plagiarism is not a crime per se but in academia and industry it is a serious ethical offense, and cases of plagiarism can constitute copyright infringement.
1 Etymology 2 Legal aspects 3 In academia and journalism 3.1 Academia 3.2 Journalism 3.3 Sanctions for student plagiarism 3.4 Self-plagiarism 3.4.1 The concept of self-plagiarism 3.4.2 Self-plagiarism and codes of ethics 3.4.3 Factors that justify reuse 3.5 Organizational publications 4 In the arts 4.1 Plagiarism and the history of art 4.2 Praisings of artistic plagiarism 5 In other contexts 5.1 Plagiarism on the Internet 6 See also 7 Notes 8 References 9 Further reading 10 External links
In the 1st century, the use of the Latin word plagiarius (literally kidnapper), to denote someone stealing someone else's work, was pioneered by Roman poet Martial, who complained that another poet had "kidnapped his verses." This use of the word was introduced into English in 1601 by dramatist Ben Jonson, to describe as a plagiary someone guilty of literary theft.
The derived form plagiarism was introduced into English around 1620. The Latin plagiārius, "kidnapper", and plagium, "kidnapping", has the root plaga ("snare", "net"), based on the Indo-European root *-plak, "to weave" (seen for instance in Greek plekein, Bulgarian "плета" pleta, Latin plectere, all meaning "to weave").
Although plagiarism in some contexts is considered theft or stealing, the concept does not exist in a legal sense. "Plagiarism" is not mentioned in any current statute, either criminal or civil. Some cases may be treated as unfair competition or a violation of the doctrine of moral rights. The increased availability of intellectual property due to a rise in technology has furthered the debate as to whether copyright offences are criminal. In short, people are asked to use the guideline, "...if you did not write it yourself, you must give credit."[unreliable source?]
Plagiarism is not the same as copyright infringement. While both terms may apply to a particular act, they are different concepts. Copyright infringement is a violation of the rights of a copyright holder, when material restricted by copyright is used without consent. On the other hand, the moral concept of plagiarism is concerned with the unearned increment to the plagiarizing author's reputation that is achieved through false claims of authorship. Plagiarism is not illegal towards the author, but towards the reader, patron or teacher. Even when copyright has expired, false claims of authorship may still constitute plagiarism.
In academia and journalism
Within academia, plagiarism by students, professors, or researchers is considered academic dishonesty or academic fraud, and offenders are subject to academic censure, up to and including expulsion. Many institutions use plagiarism detection software to uncover potential plagiarism and to deter students from plagiarizing. In journalism, plagiarism is considered a breach of journalistic ethics, and reporters caught plagiarizing typically face disciplinary measures ranging from suspension to termination of employment. Some individuals caught plagiarizing in academic or