Assertion That Something Is Or Is Not The Case.

Submitted By aira1029
Words: 586
Pages: 3

Statement- assertion that something is or is not the case.
Argument- combination of statements, providing reasoning to accept another reason.
Conclusion- therefore, thus, which implies that, so, as a result ,hence, it follows that.
Premise- because, seeing that, given that, as, due to the fact that, since, for.
Subjectivist fallacy- accept the notion or use it to try to support your claim you have set to commit.
Subjective relativism-believing in something depends on someone else.
Social relativism- truth relative to societies.
Philosophical skepticism- we know much less than we think we do.
Deductive- intended to provide logically conclusive support of its conclusion.
Deductive valid argument:
All dogs have fleas.
Bowser is a dog.
So Bowser has fleas.
Deductive invalid argument:
All dogs are mammals.
All cows are mammals.
All dogs are cows.
Inductive- Provide probable not conclusive support for its conclusion.
Valid- Deductive argument that provides decisive logical support.
Invalid- Deductive argument that fails to provide support.
Sound- A deductive valid argument that has true premises.
Cogent- Indeductive strong arguments have true premises.
Judging arguments:
Step 1: List Conclusions and Premises.
Step 2: If premises are true and the conclusion must be true its deductive.
Then check for sound.
Step 3: If premises true but conclusion probably true, its inductive. Then check if it is cogent.
Step 4: Is the argument conclusive or probable but FAILS. You eliminate valid argument and a strong one. Only left I weak or invalid.
Valid Argument Forms:
Modus Ponens:
If P then Q.
P.
Therefore Q.

Modus Tollens:
If P then Q.
Not Q.
Therefore not P.

Hypotherical Syllogism:
If P then Q
If Q then R.
Therefore, if p, then R.

Invalid Argument Forms:
Affirming the Consequent:
If P, then Q.
Q.
Therefore P.

Denying the Antecedent:
If P then Q.
Not P.
Therefore, not Q

Diagramming Arguments:
Add plus if 2 things that are talking about the same thing and need more to it.

Appeal to Authority- We rely on bogus expert opinion.
Genetic Fallacy- arguing that the claim is true or false solely because of its origin.
Appeal to the Person: claim by criticizing the person who makes it rather than the claim itself.
Appeal to popularity- Arguing the claim must be true just because of the # of…