Evaluate the key factors that can influence the effectiveness of a group
Student ID 9761829
Organisational behavior has become quite a buzz word where the study of group behavior is concerned we are talking here of individuals working in groups of two or more people to achieve a common goal. This paper not only studies the interactions of individuals within the organisation but also the way individuals behave within a group and whilst on their own.
The purpose of this essay is to gain an understanding of the key factors that can influence the effectiveness of a group or team. By analysing firstly, the different types of groups and the traits associated with each group. Lastly the challenges thrown up when groups are evolving and the stages that the group participants go through to become an effective team. Reviewing the literature that helped compile this essay the author now understand that the majority of research done on this subject has helped Human Resource manager’s develope tool sets they require to select, educate and hold on to employees in a manner that allows both the organisation and the individual to gain maximum benefit from the exercise.
Types of Group
Groups come in mays shapes and size their structures and relationships differ as does the degree of integration, Hinds (2008)
Alliance; A rater more formal setup put in place to reduce/eliminate duplication of tasks.
Coalition; Shared resources and coordination of effort to achieve a common goal.
Collaborative; Characterised by shared decision making, acting together and having a joint vision.
Networks; A type of group that exists mainly for information exchange and the fostering of communication.
Partnership; Sharing tasks to achieve each other’s goals also entails joint planning whilst remaining autonomous.
Irrespective of the group type, the group dynamic is key to how successful a group will be, there are two quite different ways that groups perform;
Along conventional lines; where the fastest thinkers often hog the lime light and interruptions are frequent, where differences of opinion are seen as threats, etc. can stifle creativity resulting in a less than satisfactory outcome
Alternatively in a participatory dynamic everyone has equal say, every group member is given time to express their thoughts, opposite views are allowed to co-exist etc. Kaner et al (2007).
These are only a few of the differences between the conventional and the participatory setup’s.
It is also important to note that there is a distinction between, audiences which are group of individuals who gather together for entertainment or one way information gathering with the primary beneficiary being themselves and those in active groups as set out above.
Group Evolution and Challenges.
Groups consist of multiple individual personalities the larger the group the greater the chance of personality conflict.
A challenge for any group is managing the interaction between group members. Groups are formed from to a larger body to work together and find a solution to a problem, each group member must have attributes that allow them to make informed decisions with respect to achieving the group goal.
Effective groups usually develop over a period of time with each member having confidence in the other and forming an understanding of how each member works individually
Getting the mix Right.
The forming of relationships is essential to building a successful team Tuchman’s Stages and Cog’s Ladder theories are two examples of this. Both theories are based on stages of progression that teams go through to become effective.
Tuchman’s Four Stage theory is set out below.
Below are the features of each phase:
Forming - stage 1
High dependence on leader for guidance and direction. Little agreement on team aims other than received from leader. Individual roles and responsibilities are unclear.