Task A: Development Chart
Sequence and rate of development
Most babies are born around the fortieth week of pregnancy. Babies who are born more than three weeks early are described as premature. In their first month of life babies change a lot. Babies at 1 month have usually started to settle into a pattern. They sleep quite a lot of the time, but will gradually start to spend longer periods awake. Babies at 3 months have grown in height and weight. Some babies have learnt the difference between day and night and are able to sleep through the night.
They are likely to cry less and most parents are getting better at knowing what their cries mean. They are also starting to sleep a little less and are far more alert. They may smile quite often and show that they know the sound of their parents voices and movements. Babies at 6 months have learnt many skills. They are very alert and turn their heads to see what is happening. They enjoy playing and show it by smiling and squealing with delight. They can now reach out and grab a toy and move it from one hand to another. They are able to focus on an object and explore it if it seems interesting. Babies also start to show that they understand a little of what is being said to them.
They usually enjoy their food and are beginning to try to feed themselves by grabbing a spoon. Many babies will also be getting their first teeth, which can be painful for them. Baby’s physical development is now very noticeable. Many babies will be crawling or finding other ways of being mobile. They are also able to sit up without any support. These new movements mean that baby can explore more. They also spend a lot more time sitting and playing. As well as large movements, babies are picking up objects, handling them and becoming more skilled at touching things, although objects still get put in their mouth.
Babies language is also developing; babbling has become more tuneful and longer strings of sounds are put together. Babies are learning what some key words mean. They may sometimes get excited when they hear words such as ‘drink’ or ‘dinner’. Babies are starting to show who they enjoy being with. From 8 months they tend to start crying if they are left with a stranger, and will actively try to be with their parents or main carers. Babies are also likely to have made a leap in their cognitive development. This is something referred to as object permanence. At around 8 or 9 months most babies will understand that objects and people do not disappear but continue to exist when they are out of sight. This is an important breakthrough and is one explanation why babies at around this time begin to protest when familiar carer leaves.
Babies have developed a lot and are mobile and maybe on the verge of walking. They may try and stand up by holding onto furniture and some babies are already walking by holding onto things (cruising). Babies are now able to crawl very quickly and have very good eyesight, just like adults. As well as being mobile babies are becoming more skilled at using their hands, and so they use them more. They also start to enjoy putting objects into containers and then taking them out. A strong feature in their play is the way they love doing something over and over again and they enjoy it. They also like to feed themselves by using their fingers. They will also know what foods they do and do not like. At 2 years children know what they want to do, touch and hold. They also enjoy moving around and walking and being able to pick up things and play with them. They like to do things for themselves and are keen to do more and get frustrated when they are not able to do so.
Toddlers do get frustrated and angry, but they are also emotional in other ways too. They smile, laugh and squeal with…