80 percent of refugees are women and children who are more vulnerable in this unstable environment. Refugees who move on from volatile camps often seek asylum in stable, developed nations, creating a precarious tension between human rights and safe passage such as Australia’s asylum seeking boat people. To stem the flow of asylum seekers, several countries in the west introduced policies of deterrence, including detention. Although many countries detain asylum seekers, Australia has been unique in establishing a policy of mandatory, indefinite detention. The report tends to identify related issues regarding Long term detention of refugees and possible mental and psychological impacts onto refugees. There are consequence caused including social instability and decreasing mental health condition. Recommendations are provided to solve the issue including refugee care programs establishment and refugee resettlement.
Table of Content
Executive summary 1
1. Issue identification 3
1.1 Serious mental health 3
1.2 Tendency to reduce refugees 3
1.3 Mandatory detention 3
2. Issue impact 3
2.1 Social instability and poverty 4
2.2 Decreasing mental and psychological disease 4
3. Recommendation 4
3.1 Refugee care programs establishment 4
3.2 Refugee resettlement 5
4. Reference list 6
1. Issue identification
With the detention policies established by most developed countries, the refugees face the challenge of mental and psychological issues. Moreover, the increasing asylum seekers have caused large amount of population that is lack of proper health care. At last, mandatory detention policy has made worse health issues to the particular population.
1.1 Serious mental health
Prolonged and uncertain periods of detention exacerbate mental health issues by a contagion effect where by dysfunctional thinking is magnified and shared by groups of people who are frustrated, distressed and/or have mental illness
1.2 Tendency to reduce refugees
The number of asylum seekers, refugees and internally displaced people worldwide rose to 20.8 million at the beginning of 2006. Western countries have increasingly resorted to policies aimed at reducing the numbers of individuals seeking residency (Crock & Saul 2002). These policies of deterrence include the reduction of access to healthcare services, education and employment as well as an increase in the practice of detaining individuals who are seeking asylum and the provision of time-limited rather than permanent protection.
1.3 Mandatory detention
Mandatory detention is supported by various countries including the USA and Australia (UNHCR, 2012, p. 2). This is to regulate the number of illegal refugees migrating to other countries, and remove individuals who do not qualify as refugees. The UNHCR allows for failed asylum seekers, and persons not owed protection to be returned to their original countries of residence. This has caused huge issues such as mental health concern and other related issues.
2. Issue impact
Based on the above issues, serious consequences are caused including social instability and poverty and decreasing mental and psychological disease.
2.1 Social instability and poverty
As to the above issues, social problems such as poverty and mental health issues will be caused. With the detention policies issued in the developed countries, poverty among refugees will make the whole society in stress, especially due to the conflict and social programs incurred in the refugee community (Koser 2010). In this regard, the population will damage society security and bring social disorder to the other people in the countries.
2.2 Decreasing mental and psychological disease
Psychiatric assessment indicated the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in adults and children to have increased markedly since the participants were detained (Mares 2001). Moreover, high levels of emotional distress among individuals who were in detention or who had been