The First Stage is Infancy
Infants learn basic trust or mistrust which is usually identified with the maternal individual. This is established through the fact that the maternal individual tends to the infants needs. When they are hungry they get fed. When they are soiled they get changed. Hope is a characteristic of strength and learning at this stage
The Second stage is Early Childhood.
Children learn at this stage how to self govern and regulate. They also learn about shame and doubt of self. This is also learned through parental individuals. Children don’t necessarily get what they want all the time. They learn how to self sooth. The Will of the child is fostered in t this stage.
The Third stage is Play Age.
Children learn how to initiate responses and friendships. They also learn about guilt at this stage. Not only is this learned through friendships but also through basic family. Purpose is a key strength in this stage.
The Fourth Stage is School Age.
In this stage children learn about Industry – hard work – having to do homework is one of the ways they learn this. On the other hand they also learn about inferiority which can be learned through test taking and rank in a classroom. This is primarily learned in a school setting. The basic strength for this stage is competency.
The Fifth Stage is Adolescence.
This stage is marked by identity. Adolescents learn about whom they are and what is culturally acceptable and what is not. This stage is also marked by confusion of identity because one can be in one ethnic group and can simultaneously belong to another group dimension. Adolescents learn identity primarily from peer groups. The basic strength for this stage is Family.
The Sixth Stage is Young Adult.
At this stage young adults learn about being intimate with different types of relationships, such as lover, friend, and family. Intimacy does not always constitute having sexual relations. Young adults also learn about being alone or isolated. Love of self or another is a basic strength in this stage.
The Seventh Stage is Adulthood.
During the adulthood stage adults learn about being productive either with a job or in life in general; such as having a family, marriage, and children. If none of these are accomplished they also learn about stagnation or staying in a rut so to speak. Care of family or self is a basic strength in this stage.
The Final Stage is Old Age.
At this stage in life individuals learn about their morals and principles. Sometimes they also learn about despair. Although I did not understand what mankind – my kind meant I will take a stab at the definition. Meaning individuals at this stage don’t discriminate against anyone. Every one is the same. This stage is marked by the strength of wisdom.
The only thing that bothers me about his eight stages is that they are dependent of each other. Which means, if an individual doesn’t learn the objectives in one stage they will not be able to move on to the next stage? It seems that according to this theory chronological age and mental age may not always be the same. Allen Ivey's developmental counseling and therapy (DCT) is about how there is a fourth stage that Piaget did not have included in his cognitive theory. In the fourth stage individuals learn the importance of self-talk, internalizing, and doing introspection about: the self, relationships, and about their social environment. In his theory he is emphatic about how relationships are complex. Also, relationships are all interactive with the individual self.
Rogers's client-centered theory is as the theory states “Client Centered”. He believed that individuals can self-actualize if the counselor provides the correct atmosphere. For example warm and nurturing;