Anticoagulant, Antiplatelet, and Thrombolytic Drugs Heparin produces anticoagulant effect in different ways. For example by inactivating Thrombin and activated factor X over an antithrombin dependent mechanism. Heparin binds to antithrombin through a high affinity pentasaccharide. It also binds to coagulation. Heparin prevents fibrin formation by inactivating thrombin. Standard therapeutic range of 0.3 to 0.7 U/mL is based on a heparin level of 0.2 to0.7 U/mL by protamine sulfate titration. Hemorhage is one of the common side effects of Heparin. Atrial and venous thrombosis in association with thrombocytopenia is another side effect of Heparin. Abdominal pains, back pain, bleeding from the gums, and blood in urine have also been reported as side effects of Heparin. The major job of Warfarin is to inhibit the vitamin K dependent synthesis of biologically active forms of the calcium dependent clotting factors. The main side effect of Warfarin is risk of dangerous bleeding. There are some other side effects such as rectum bleeding, rash or itching, swelling of the face, throat, mouth, legs and hands, chest pain. It usually takes up to 7 seven days to see the effects of Warfarin, but taking more than the recommended dosage may results in falls in the level of protein C.
Taking aspirin in low dosage but long term use irreversibly blocks the formation of thromboxane A2 in platelets, producing an inhibitory effect on platelet