P2: Discuss theories of communication
Argyles communication cycle:
Argyle is a social psychologist who researched and developed theories about human communication and interpersonal interaction. He focused on verbal and non-verbal communication, carrying out experimental research to test and develop his theoretical ideas. Argyles communication cycle theory sets out to understand explain and predict how communication occurs between people in one-to-one situations.
There are 6 main stages:
An idea occurs
A message is coded (by choosing words, using non-verbal communication or sign language)
A message is sent (via speech, writing, signing or use of non-verbal communication)
The message is received
The message is decoded (the recipient has to interpret the message using their knowledge of language, non-verbal communication, signs or symbols)
The message is understood (the recipient correctly interprets the message or understands the information sent)
This is an example of what would happen in a one to one conversation possibly between Oliver and the Social worker or the Occupational therapist and Oliver’s parents.
The receiver of the message keeps the communication going by responding to or by giving feedback to the original message.
Tuckmans Theory of Communication:
Stage 1: Forming
Time will be spent by individuals to weigh each other up there is often considerable anxiety at this stage.
Time will be spent asking questions to find out where people are coming from and see how everyone compares.
Early judgements of one another maybe made with limited information.
The most important task at this stage is to ensure that team goals are clearly stated and agreed.
This is when the team will first meet and they decide what goals need to be set for the correct care. This is also when the team begin to get to know each other and form their first opinions of each other.
Stage 2: Storming
This stage is when members of the team begin to develop their confidence and begin to put forward their own ideas;
Argue their case
Challenge others in the group
Individuals may react strongly and opinions may become polarised
Teams must share a commitment to:
To build up trust
To begin the definition of team roles
This is a natural part of team development the team leader must build positively on this to gain shared commitment.
This is when the group are feeling a little bit more comfortable with each other and begin to challenge each other to see what Oliver’s needs are and how they can best accomplish that in the correct care.
Stage 3: Norming
This stage establishes the need for members to recognise that co-operation instead of conflict will enable the group to reach their goals.
The team will develop behavioural patterns and standards become accepted as the norm.
They will readily communicate their views, feelings and networks for mutual support.
This is when they are getting their plan together of who needs to do what to make sure Oliver’s needs are met and to make sure they all understand what needs to be done. People like the social worker and the occupational therapist would be involved in the multi-agency plan to get Oliver back to school and make sure amendments are made to his home.
Stage 4: Performing
The team members will feel more comfortable during this stage
They will work together more flexibly
The team leader can withdraw from day to day involvement
Systems for regular reviews and support sessions for individuals are established to ensure team work is effective. This is when the group are working well together they are all following the plan and where they feel comfortable that they don’t have to meet on a day to day basis as the plan is already in action.
Stage 5: Adjourning
Not all teams go through the final stage as members can leave the group for other things. They realise certain changes to the team need to occur.