2 Sunspots are areas on the surface of the sun that appear darker than their surroundings because they are 2000 K cooler than the photosphere. Each sunspot has an Umbra and a Penumbra, and the largest sunspots could be tens of thousands of kilometers across. However, the number of sunspots varies over an 11-year cycle (if you look at numbers, and 22 years if total polarity is considered) known as the solar cycle. As the solar cycle progresses, the number of sunspots increases and they move toward the sun’s equator. Usually, sunspots appear in pairs with opposite magnetic polarity. What’s more, the magnetic polarity of the leading solar cycle alternates every solar cycle, so that “it would be north magnetic pole in one cycle and a south magnetic pole in the next.”
Based on historical evidence, weather shifts may be influenced by the solar cycle activity. It was shown that times of minimum solar activity correspond with global cold. For instance, in the years between 1645-1715, few sunspots were seen and observed. In Western Europe, an event started known as the “Maunder minimum” or “Little ice age”. On the other hand, times of increased solar activity have corresponded with times of global warming. During the 12th and 13th centuries, the sun was active, and the European climate was quite mild.
3 The interior of the sun is made of three major parts. The core which extends from the very center to make about the 1/4th of the solar radius. It is extremely dense and reaches a temperature around 15 million K. also, it is where Nuclear Fusion occurs, that is, when two atoms of hydrogen are forced to come together by high pressure to create Helium-4 and energy. Next, the radiation zone where the energy is transferred outwards by photons (Radiation). The temperature in this zone varies between 2-7 million K depending on its distance from the core. Finally, the convection zone, which is the area that extends from just below the surface to approximately 200,000 Km inwards. Gases coming from the radiation zone are hotter and have low density, so they rise to the convection zone. The gases then cool and become more dense, causing them to sink back in and get reheated again and the cycle continues.
1 The suns atmosphere consists of three layers. First, the photosphere, which is the part that emits light with a temperature 5800 K. it is over 110 Earth-diameters across and could fit 1 million earths inside of it. Secondly comes the chromosphere, which we don’t see it with naked eye because the light of the atmosphere overpowers that. However, it can be seen as a narrow red brand around the sun during eclipses. Surprisingly, the temperatures from the top of the photosphere as we move outwards rise from 4500K to reach 10,000 K. Finally, the corona, the collection of gases immediately around the sun. It is extremely hot with a temperature reaching 1 million K. Similarly to the chromosphere; the corona can only be seen with the naked eyes during eclipses. The area which have no corona are called “corona holes”, and it is thought to be