Athens Aropolis Essay

Submitted By heayacong
Words: 1283
Pages: 6

Acropolis,which located in central Athens acropolis hill, is the most outstanding ancient Greek buildings. Greek for “Acropolis” means “high city” or “Takaoka on the city-state.” As a representative work of ancient Greek architecture, Acropolis of Athens has reached the highest level of sacred buildings, temples, orders and sculptures in ancient Greece. These ancient buildings can be rated as the heritage of mankind and architectural masterpiece, and hold an important position in architecture history. Acropolis, including four greatest ancient Greek art masterpieces—Parthenon Temple, the Propylaea, the Erechtheum and Temple of Athena Nike, is considered to be a symbol of the world’s traditional concepts. Due to the history, there are many Parthenon marbles which they removed from the temple and transported to England in the British museum. Many people require England to return sculptures while others do not want to. It is a controversy topic and different people have very different opinions. In my point of view, returning is necessary because cultural treasures from ancient civilizations belong in the places they come from. Also, the cultural importance of the marbles are very strong, not only do they possess the power to almost unlock the past of ancient Greece but as well they have the power to unite the local Citizens of Greece to their true heritage. The Acropolis is used to prevent foreign invasion of the fortress, surrounded by the walled hilltop, site of the ancient Acropolis hill in the south. In 5th century BC, during the period of democratic politics ruled by Athens slave owners, the Acropolis became the religious center of the State. Since Greece defeated Persian’s invasion by joint efforts of several other city-states, it was viewed as a national symbol. Upon every religious festival or national celebration, citizens lined up the mountain for ritual activities. The most important monuments on the Acropolis, which mentioned before, are Parthenon Temple, the Propylaea, the Erechtheum and Temple of Athena Nike. Parthenon is a perfect temple located on the Acropolis. It has become the most important building in classical Greece, generally considered to be the culmination of the development of the Doric order. Built on Athens's historic acropolis in the fifth century BC, the Parthenon was partly a tribute to the goddess Athena to thank her for helping Athens. However, it was also a monument to the power of Athens itself. The Parthenon is regard as an enduring symbol of ancient Greece and of Athenian democracy and one of the world’s greatest culture monuments. The Propylaea is a monumental entrance to the Acropolis. Propylaea is the plural of propylon meaning gate. As we all know, the structure had five doorways and build on the incline. Dealing with the incline was a big problem. “The architect entrusted with this important commission was Mnesikles. The site was a difficult one, on a steep slope, but Mnesikles succeeded in disguising the change in ground level by splitting the building into eastern and western section, each one resembling a Doric temple façade.” (139) Unfortunately, the building of the Propylaea was interrupted by the Peloponnesian War, finished hastily. While the Parthenon was the most impressive temple on the Acropolis, another building, the Erechtheion was built to accommodate the religious rituals that the old temple housed. The temple was a complex marble building in the Ionic order, the frieze of Eleusinian grey stone with white relief figures attached to it and the foundations of Piraeus stone. The Caryatids have become the temple’s signature feature, as they stand and seem to casually support the weight of the porch’s roof on their heads. One of the six Caryatids was brought in 1811 by Lord Elgin to Britain (now in the British Museum), the remaining five were replaced by replicas to prevent further damage from the smog (the originals are in the Acropolis Museum). “Another Ionic