2. Nonpolar covalent bonds > polar covalent bonds > ionic bonds
3. C > N > O > H
4. Hydrogen bonds only form between atoms that are engaged in covalent bonds that are polar.
5. Electrons are shared equally in CH4 and unequally in NH3
6. Carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen
7. Number of protons
8. The number of protons plus neutrons in the element
9. Some carbon atoms in nature have more neutrons.
10. 15 protons and 15 electrons
11. Outer-shell electrons of two atoms are shared so as to satisfactorily fill their respective orbitals
12. Each hydrogen atom has a partial positive charge; the nitrogen atom has a partial negative charge.
13. Nonpolar covalent bonds
14.One of the atoms sharing electrons is more electronegative than the other atom
15. Covalent bonds involve the sharing of electrons between atoms; ionic bonds involve the electrical attraction between charged atoms.
18. Almost empty; cations
19. Single, double, or triple
22. Oils are nonpolar molecules that cannot interact with water molecules via hydrogen bonding.
23. Water has a high specific heat.
24. An acid.
25. Polar covalent bonds.
26. Electrons in H2 and O2 have relatively high P.E; electrons in H2O have relatively low P.E.
27. A decrease in potential energy from reactants to products is released as heat.
28. Potential energy
29. Energy is neither created nor destroyed
32. The partial negative charge on oxygen would stick out less and be less able to participate in hydrogen bonding.
33. Oils are nonpolar molecules that cannot interact with water molecules via hydrogen bonding.
35. (7.59 × 10−4)
36. It would make the molecule more soluble