What is cognitive psychology? – study of thought (perception, memory, problem solving), how the mind is organized and is realized.
Naïve realism – see the world as it really is. The world is exactly the way we really see it two big problems – shape constancy, color constancy. hastorf & cantril – everyone saw the same game, people from different side have different opinions. Research ask Dartmouth and Princeton questions. Whose fault was it? Mark out infractions. the world is not the way we see it
There are infinite ways a two dimensional object can give rise to three dimensional things. Retina (two dimensional thing) tries to rebuild three dimensional world, so we use shortcut (assumptions) to build the three dimensional world. Use shortcut to disambiguate what was ambiguous.
Computational psychology – too many ambiguity to be considered, so we developed ways to resolve these ambiguity.
Rabbit? (mom points to an object and said rabbit, how does tommy know which thing mom was pointing at?) We go for natural level of representations, in this case the whole object.
Neurons. Signal is fed into dendrite. -> information sent thru neurons. inside of neurons is more negative than outside. -> when signal is send to dendrite, depolarization occurs and if enough positive charge was entered, action potential is fired. voltage gated Ca++ channel, acts as signal?
Sensory neuron branches and send a positive response and a negative response (to cause the relax part of the muscle) and causes a kick.
Direction of evolution is from bottom to up. (brain structure) central sulcus – divides frontal and parietal soviet sulcus – divides temporal and parietal.
(thinking) higher order specialized the more front you go. Occipital perceive, parietal (location) and temporal process (faces/language), to frontal (decision making)
Brain projection area – where sensory processing occurs.
Right hemisphere – more “big picture”, left – more detail.
Contralateral – right side controlled by left brain, left side controlled by right brain.
Rostral = anterior (rose = smell)
Caudal = posterior
Right = big picture (more easy to be right if you look at big picture)
Left = detail
Structuralism – idea, introspection – method.
Structuralism – analyze the mind by its elementary components. wundt Awareness. Just because you can do something, doesn’t mean you know what’s going on.
The act of observation changes the process itself.
Behaviorism, opposite of mentalism. One cannot observe anything they think.
No difference across species
Everything you know is learned
Learning: habituation, classical condition and instrumental learning.
Objective understanding of the mind.
Things in mind are mere speculative.
Behaviorism believes we start out blank, everything is learned.
Habituation – your brain cares about changes. In a line, your brain cares about the edges not the middle.
Change is a crucial aspect of the mind.
If mouse already learn light happens with shock, adding bell means bell is irrelevant – blocking.
Why classical conditioning? Old theory: association/replacement. New theory: preparation.
Overdosing – body preparing for drug shock when facing environment. Overdosing happen when one administer the drug in a new place (no body preparation).
Variable partial reinforcement is the most powerful way to condition.
Latent inhibition – presentation of CS without US prior to experiment slows learning. keyword association technique for language learning – find a native word that sounds similar to the foreign word -> associate the native word with the word that means the foreign word.
Structuralism – everything is built from component, component identified by introspection.
Behaviorism – everything is learned, focus only on observable events
Ratio – # of events interval – amount of time
Hastorf & Cantril – football game example
Wundt – introspection
Titchener – student of Wundt
Pavlov – classical conditioning
Watson & Rayner