Australian and Chinese Government Essay

Submitted By skyebarlow
Words: 1668
Pages: 7

| China | Australia | Legislature | In the Chinese constitution it states that “The Republic of China, founded on the Three Principles of the People, shall be a democratic republic of the People, by the people, and for the people.” and the people exercise this authority through the main legislative body, the National People’s Congress (NPC). National People’s Congress (NPC) * The NPC is considered the highest state power * Holds annual meetings to approve the budget make amends to the constitution and elect high ranking officials * Unlike Australia, China’s legislative function is unicameral, meaning there is only one house of Parliament * Deputies are elected to the National People’s Congress by Deputies in the Lower People’s Congress * The spread of Communism is such that 70% of the representatives are also members of the CPC * In this sense, coupled with the infrequency of meetings, the NPC enables the CPC to rubber-stamp their drafted legislation. * Conversely, in Australia there are two dominant parties with near equal representation (although one always has a majority), and a variety of minor parties which represent the beliefs and values of the people * Whilst the two party system is a feature characteristic of Australian politics the CPC’s dominance of the NPC enables them to express sole party rule over the Chinese citizens * The true political force behind China’s legislative function is the CPC * Although the major legislative body of the CCP is the CCP’s National Party Congress, in real effect, day to day policy is determined by smaller party units * The national party congress has over 2900 members and meets just once every five years * The most important of these smaller sub-units is the Politburo Standing Committee, which comprises the Chairman, Vice-Chairman, and the Secretary-General * This elitist group consists of just nine members who direct the aims of the Communist regime and despite the rights granted to the people by the Chinese Constitution, it is these officials that monopolise legislative power. NPC Standing Committee * Meets more frequently than NPC * Approximately 160 members * Can enact and amend some laws, but still approves party policy | * Upon Australia’s Federation in 1901, inspiration for a legislative structure was drawn from the existing model in British parliament * This system is known as the Westminster system of Responsible government, whereby government is responsible to an elected parliament * This principle formed the basis for Australia’s legislative function * Australian parliament consists of democratically elected representatives from around Australia who meet at Parliament house to make and debate laws for the benefit of the nation * The Parliament is bi-cameral, that is to say, comprises two separate chambers of Parliament, the House of Representatives (The People’s House, with 150 members) and the Senate (The House of Review, 76 Senators, 12 from each state) * Members of the House of Representatives must be directly chosen by the people as stated in Section 24 (The Nexus Clause) of the Constitution * On this note, representation of the people differs greatly between the two countries * Chinese citizens may only directly elect leaders within the People’s Congress for their town, and there are many levels at which the People’s Congress are established * The people have almost no say in who ends up as a delegate in the National People’s Congress, thus their will and voice in China’s political system is only theoretical * There is consequently a distinct difference between the two countries in the means through which legislative representation is achieved. | Executive | * Executive power in China resides with the President, who is the Chief of State and the highest executive authority * Whilst the President is usually also the Chairman of the CPC (in reality, the leader of China), his role is much