Bhat, A. N., Landa, R. J., & Galloway, J. (2011). Current Perspectives on Motor Functioning in Infants, Children, and Adults With Autism Spectrum Disorders. Physical Therapy, 91(7), 1116-1129.
Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are the most common pediatric diagnoses in the United States. Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are characterized by a range of social and communication impairments, as well as repetitive behaviors. These disorders comprise 3 diagnostic subcategories based on number and type of symptoms: autism, pervasive developmental disorder, and Asperger syndrome. Autism spectrum disorders, with a prevalence of 1 in 110 children, are the most common pediatric diagnoses in the United States, with 36,500 new cases per year and a total of 730,000 cases. They are also one of the most costly disabilities, with up to $3.2 million in lifetime costs for an individual and family and $34.8 billion in societal costs for all families having individuals with ASDs. As a result, there is worldwide research and clinical interest in understanding the progression of ASD-related symptoms during the course of development and in creating novel autism interventions to improve outcomes. Given the presence of motor impairments, physical therapists are increasingly becoming part of the treatment team for children with ASDs. Children, adolescents, and adults with ASDs display a range of measurable motor impairments. Speciﬁcally,