Surprising as it seems, given the company’s strategy of using technology to distance itself from competitors, IT had become part of Schwab’s problem. By the company’s own reckoning, IT staffers’ responses to business requests had become slow and expensive. IT engineers had to spend more time than ever fixing bugs in the systems. Meanwhile, several big, ambitious projects were overdue — including the tax-lot accounting system Schwab had envisioned to serve its most profitable customers — and the slow progress of these projects was preventing the company from responding effectively to competition. Still, the company kept throwing money at projects because it didn’t see an alternative. “We said, we have to keep spending money because we’re half pregnant and you can’t be half pregnant,” recalls Deborah McWhinney, president of Schwab Institutional. A red flag went up when Schwab found itself spending 18% of revenue on IT while three of its leading competitors were spending 13% or less, a cost disadvantage amounting to hundreds of millions of dollars annually.
The fact that a company as tech savvy as Schwab could find itself in this predicament is instructive. It underscores a growing realization we have found among the companies we work with that the usual diagnoses of IT’s troubles — and the usual prescriptions for fixing those troubles — are often misguided. For many years now, companies seeking to deliver higher business performance by harnessing IT have focused on alignment. By alignment, we mean the degree to which the IT group understands the priorities of the business and expends its resources, pursues projects and provides information consistent with them. Almost every company we have worked with recognizes that IT and business priorities must be tightly linked. In practical terms, that means IT spending must be matched to the company’s growth strategies. There must be shared ownership and shared governance of IT projects. It’s become something of a mantra voiced by senior business executives: A lack of alignment can doom IT either to irrelevance or to failure.
That much is true. But in our work with IT and business executives and dozens of companies in many different industries, we began to see a troubling pattern: Even at companies that were focused on alignment, business performance dependent on IT sometimes went sideways, or even declined.
Why wouldn’t a high degree of alignment alone bring about improvement? In our experience, a narrow focus on alignment reflects a fundamental misconception about the nature of IT. Under performing capabilities are often rooted not just in misalignment but in the complexity of systems, applications and other infrastructure. This complexity develops for understandable reasons. At Schwab, for instance, the enormous complexity of the company’s IT system wasn’t the result of IT engineers somehow running amok. Rather, the company’s various divisions were driving independent initiatives,