Axial Skeleton Notes Essay

Submitted By danielledupont
Words: 636
Pages: 3

Tuesday, January 13, 2015

BIO 262!
Axial Skeleton

- Quick Review!
• Anatomical position!
• Body planes!
- Sagittal!
- Frontal!
- Transverse!
• Directional terms!
• Landmarks!
- Axial—skull/thoracic cage/vertebral column!
- Cephalic— head!
- Cervical—neck!
- Abdominal—abdomen!
- Pelvic— pelvic region!
- Dorsal—back!
- General skeletal system!
• Bone!
• Cartilage!
• Ligaments!
• Joints!
• 206 Avg. bones for adult!
• Babies bone with more bones then later in life they fuse together. Approx. 270 when born.!

- Function!
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• Support!
• Protection!
• Muscle Attachment!
• Reservoir for minerals—Calcium stored in bones!
• House bone marrow for blood cell production!
- Divisions!
• Appendicular !
• Axial (80 bones)!
- Skull (22)!
- Associated (7)!
• 6 Auditory ossicles!
• Hyoid bone!
- Vertebral column!
- Thoracic cage!
- Skull!
• Facial bones (14)!
- Maxilla (above the lip)!
• Alveoli— sockets your teeth sit in!
- Mandible (jaw bone)!
• Alveoli— sockets your teeth sit in!
- Nasal bones (bridge of your nose)!
- Lacrimal bones (around the eyes)!
- Palatine bone!
- Zygomatic!
- Nasal concha (3 on each side)!
• Inferior (next to vomer) (facial), middle (cranial), superior (cranial)!
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• Middle/superior—bone makings on ethmoid bone. (part of cranial bones)!
• Cranial bones (8)!
- Frontal bone (1)!
- Parietal bone (2)!
- Occipital (1)!
- Temporal (2)!
- Ethmoid— olfactory foramen, crista galli, cribriform plate!
• Nasal septum— 2 bones!
• Vomer!
• Perpendicular plate !
- Sphenoid— *looks like a butterfly !
• Sella turcica (turkish saddle)— pituitary gland sits inside!
• Optic canals/foramen (going toward the eyes)!
• Optic chaism— crossing of optic nerves !
• Superior orbital fissure !
• Inferior orbital fissure!
• Foramen Lasserum (DONT HAVE TO KNOW THIS) !
• Foramen ovale!
• Foramen rotundum!
• Sutures— where two bones are connected!
- Coronal/frontal suture connects frontal bone and two parietal bones.!
- Sagittal suture separates two parietal bones.!
- Lambdoid suture separates occipital and parietal. (Looks like the greek letter lambda.)! - Squamous (scale-like) suture separates temporal from parietal bone.!
• Fontanels (babies)!
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- Soft spots that allow for the skull to be movable to go through the birth canal and allow for the brain to grow.!

• Bone features!
- Temporal bone— external auditory meatus (opening to a canal)!
• Internal auditory meatus !
• Carotid canal— carotid artery!
• Jugular foramen (hole or opening)— jugular vein !
- Occipital bone—foreman magna!
• Occipital condyles (smooth, rounded projection)— articulate with atlas!
• Hypoglossal foramen!
- Paranasal sinuses (air filled cavities)!
• Sphenoid!
- Sphenoid sinus !
• Frontal!
- Frontal sinus!
• Maxillary!
- Maxillary sinus!
• Ethmoid!
- Bone markings!
• Fissure— slit!
• Fossa— depression!
• Meatus— opening to a canal!
• Foramen— hole or opening!
• Process—!
• Condyle— smooth, rounded projection!
- Vertebral Column!
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• 26 bones!
• Cervical (7) (C1-C7)!
- C1—atlas: large vertebral foramen, holds your head !
-…