Essay on Background Research

Submitted By fhgirl21
Words: 586
Pages: 3

Iontophoresis: Iontophoresis involves the passing of a WEAK electrical current through the skin. it is referred to as an injection without a needle. it can be defined as a non invasive method to propel high concentrations of a charged substance (medication, or bioactive agent) transmitted by repulsive electromotive force using a small and weak electrical charge applied to an iontophoretic chamber containing a similarly charged active agent. its simply put as an ION transfer. It is used in therapy, but has expanded to medicine, dentistry, lab sciences, and physiology. it is a mainstream technique in the USA. the idea is to drive ions through the skin and into deep tissues reaching as far down into the nerves. to do this it needs an electrical current some suggest the current be continuous, and others suggest that a pulse application can be used. the substance has to be ionic and must be placed under the same electrode with the same charge. The positive charged chamber which is called the anode, will repel a positively charged chemical into the skin. the negatively charged chamber called the cathode will repel a negatively charged chemical into the skin. the electrode under which the ionic solution is placed is called the ACTIVE electrode this is in basic forms called the Treatment electrode or Delivery electrode. The other electrode referred to as the Dispersive, Indifferent, Inactive, or Return electrode, is used to complete the circuit. Ions with a polarity which is the same as that of the stimulating electrode are repelled into the skin. the effect of the treatment is attributed to the delivered ions, NOT the ELECTRICAL CURRENT. however the electrical current is what drives the ions into the skin. the ions are driven into the skin via the pores (hair follicles, sweat gland ducts). the ions that are to be used (the ionic solution respectively) will depend on the therapeutic effects which intended.

Low concentrations appear to achieve favorable results. the NEGATIVE
ELECTRODE IS MADE larger to AVOID SKIN IRRITATION. DO NOT USE CONSTANT
VOLTAGE STIMULATION, it will lead to a BURN on the skin. USE instead CONSTANT
CURRENT.

Current density (how strong the current is and also how concentrated it is) is measured in mA/cm2 which is an important factor in treatments. IF current density reaches TOO HIGH, tissue…