Bacteria and Chapman J. Essay

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Report on Mycoplasma Hominis
1. Introduction
Mycoplasmas are common opportunistic organisms that cause illness principally in those women whose immune systems are not fully functioning. They have also been postulated to serve as co-factors in the development of AIDS in HIV-infected persons. (Waites K., 2013). Although scientists have isolated at least 17 species of Mycoplasma from humans, 4 types of organisms are responsible for most clinically significant infections that may come to the attention of practicing physicians. There are four main diseases that caused by bacteria, three of them are located in the reproductive tract of women, but last one influences on the nervous system of infants. So, women should be informed about infections that have direct connection to HIV and meningitis in newborns.
2. Aetiology
2.1 Description of bacterium
Mycoplasma species are the smallest free-living organism without a cell wall, which mainly responsible for biological properties of the bacteria. One of the important properties is absence of a cell wall that makes impossible to classify bacteria. Another property is lack of susceptibility to variation of common prescribed antimicrobial agents.
The bacterium is found in humans, plants and animals, including insects. As a bacterium, its parasitic features are based on harnessing of the resources of the host cell; it means that numerous metabolic functions are no longer needed and therefore bacterium takes all nutrients and molecules that are necessary for its survival from the invaded organism. (Chapman J., 2013)
2.2 Impact of bacterium on human organism
Mycoplasma hominis plays a significant role in the microflora of men and women, for that reason, it is implicated in diverse diseases of the respiratory and urogenital tracts. Complications are usually caused when bacterium gets through the body’s submucosa, which is the layer of tissue directly underneath the lining, or mucosa. Infrequently, it can penetrate the submucosa in the case of immunosuppression or instrumentation, and if that happens, it leads to infection of the bloodstream, thus damage might be caused to different organs and tissues throughout the body. The role of Mycoplasma hominis is unclear for most of diseases, but there is evidence that indicates it as a catalyst in a variety of infections, such as lung infections, central nervous system infections, other respiratory tract infections, joint infection, and wound infections. If infection occurs, it can lead to some serious difficulties, such as pelvic inflammatory disease, post-abortal fever, postpartum fever and extragenital infections. Although 20% of men and over 40% of women are infected, severe diseases can be developed only in body of the immunodepressed human. (Hughes S., Kirby P. and Roberts P., 2000)
2.3 Diagnosis of Mycoplasma hominis
Presence of Mycoplasma hominis within different areas of the body can be diagnosed by using polymerase chain reactions which target the genes of glycaraldehydes-4-phosphate dehydrogenase. This test identifies changes in the metabolic functions of an organism; therefore, it makes easier to treat Mycoplasma associated illnesses. (Chapman J., 2013)
3. Manifestation and treatment
Since Mycoplasma hominis inhabits the urogenital tract of females, it has the potential of contributing to pelvic infections. These diseases include pelvic inflammatory disease, salpingitis and bacterial vaginosis. M. hominis has also been found to be a contributing factor of both pharyngitis and respiratory disease while there is relationship to other forms of disease including septic arthritis, central nervous system conditions, female infertility and postpartum fever. (Public Health Agency of Canada, 2010)
Bacterial Vaginosis
The overgrowth of Mycoplasma hominis in the reproductive tract of women, which is called bacterial vaginosis, is usually associated with women who are sexually active. The main causes are: the drop in the immune system,…