Essay Battle of Calabria

Words: 2828
Pages: 12

BATTLE OF CALABRIA (BATTLE OF PUNTA STILO) - 1940

INTRODUCTION

1. In the history, the Struggle for the Middle Sea describes the naval war fought in the Mediterranean and Red Sea with five great navies that participated: a. Great Britain’s Royal Navy. b. Italy’s Regia Marina. c. France’s Marine Nationale. d. United States Navy. e. German Kriegsmarine. 2. It examines the national essential that made the Mediterranean such a vital theater for each of these powers and it analyses their actions and performances over the entire five-year campaign from 1940 to 1945. Particularly in this coverage of naval surface combat during that time is filled with fresh perspectives and same supported by wide-ranging research in
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To this end, a fast convoy to deliver 2,190 men, 232 trucks, 10,445 tons of war material and 5,720 tons of fuel and lubricants, was scheduled to depart Italy on 6th July for Benghazi, Libya.

12. On the 4th July, two days before the Italian convoy was due to sail, Italian naval intelligence had warned the Super marina about the British operation. Super marina decided to concentrate their Battle Fleet in the Central Mediterranean to protect the convoy and if necessary to confront the British Fleet before it could be united with the Gibraltar force, which they left to be attacked by their submarines and aircraft.

CONDUCT OF WAR

13. On 6 July a convoy of four merchant ships left Naples on their way to Bengazi, while attempting to fool the Allies into thinking they were making way to Tripoli. The next day their escort force joined them from Taranto after being informed that the Allies had recently left port in Alexandria. A fifth cargo ship also joined them from Catania. The escort of the convoy consisted of three groups; directly protecting the cargo ships were eight destroyers and four torpedo boats, while a second group sailed 35 km to the east and contained six heavy cruisers and another twelve destroyers. Finally the main battle group contained two battleships (Giulio Cesare and Conte DI Cavour), eight light cruisers and another thirteen destroyers.

14. Meanwhile the Allies were