ADELA JURASKOVA 15903453 VISUAL COMMUNICATIONS
“The Bauhaus does not pretend to be a crafts school; contact with into industrial laboratories: from their experimentation will evolve to prepare for designing for mass production. Starting with the
industry is consciously sought...the old craft workshops will develop standards for industrial production...The teaching of a craft is meant simplest tools and least complicated jobs, he gradually acquires
ability to master more intricate problem and to work with machinery, while at the same time he keeps in touch with the entire process of production from start to finish.” (Walter Gropius).
Introduction Political and Cultural influence 2.1 Political 2.2 Cultural
1 1 1-2 2. 3 3-4 5-6 7 8 8-9
Prominent Bauhaus artists 3.1 Johannes Itten 3.1 Wassily Kandinsky 3.1 Oskar Schlemmer
Staatliches Bauhaus, also known as Bauhaus, was an art school based in Germany that compounded craft and fine art and is famous for its approach to design. Bauhaus functioned from 1919 to 1933. At that time the term Bauhaus stood for “school of building”. The Bauhaus style had a huge influence on Modernist architecture and modern design.(Whitford, 1991) The Bauhaus also took an important part in the development of art, graphic design, interior design, industrial design, and typography. (Whitford, 1991)Bauhaus style is also known as the International Style, and place emphasis on an absence of ornamentation and the harmony between the function of an object or building and its design (Whitford, 1991). A few of the prominent artists influenced by Bauhaus were Johannes Itten, Wassily Kandinsky, and Oskar Schlemmer.
2.0 Political and Cultural influence
Bauhaus was founded in Germany at a time of crisis and turmoil within Europe. The whole existence of Bauhaus is linked to the Weimar Republic (Eberhard, 2012) .The Weimar Republic was name for federal republic and semipresidential representative democracy founded in 1919 in Germany to change the imperial form of government. The official name of the state was German Reich. The successful Nazi era continued from pre-1918 Imperial period (Eberhard, 2012). During 14 years of its existence, the Weimar Republic faced multiple difficulties such as hyperinflation, political extremists (left and right wing), and ongoing quarrelsome relationships with the victors of World War I (Eberhard, 2012). However, the currency was successfully reformed as well as unified tax policies and the railway system (Eberhard, 2012).
The ensuing period of liberal democracy finished by 1930, meanwhile President Hindenburg pretended dictatorial emergency powers to support the administrations of Chancellors Brüning, Papen, Schleicher and also Hitler (Eberhard, 2012) .The great Depression during 1930 and 1933 led to a surge in unemployment. It led to the rising power of Nazi Party and Adolf Hitler in 1933. Nazi adopted new legislative measures, also known as the Machtergreifung (seizure of power) indicated that the government was allowed legislate contrary to the constitution (Eberhard, 2012). The republic formally existed until 1945, as the constitution was never abolished, but the measures adopted by the Nazis showed the constitution irrelevant (Eberhard, 2012). The year 1933 can be perceived as the end of the Weimar Republic and the start of Hitler’s Third Reich (Evans, 2004). Bauhaus was closed in year 1933 due to Nazi regime. Most of Bauhaus’s artists emigrated to America. (Loxley, 2004). The upsurge of radical experimentation in all forms of art, with Germany, was allowed following their defeat in World War I (WWI) and fall of the German monarchy. Many left-winged Germans were determined by the cultural experimentation that resulted in the Russian Revolution. The founder of Bauhaus Walter Gropius did not follow these radical views, and claimed that Bauhaus was