Classical conditioning is learning through which an organism learns to associate one stimulus with another. This type of learning is also known as Pavlovian conditioning or respondent conditioning. On the other hand, cognitive learning is whether the conditioned stimulus provides information that enables the organism to reliably predict the occurrence of the unconditioned stimulus. A different type is operant conditioning which is the theory that consequences increase or decrease the frequency of said behavior.
Ivan Pavlov research originally was to clarify the role of salvia in the process of digestion. During this process he developed a procedure for collecting and measuring salvia in a dog's mouth. While doing the experiment he realized the dog began to salivate before the food was placed in it's mouth. Pavlov's contribution to psychology became to be classical conditioning.
John Watson is responsible for emotional conditioning. He proved that fear could be classically conditioned. He conducted the experiment known as Little Albert. From this experiment he concluded that conditioned fears continue and alter the personality throughout life.
Edward Thorndike formulated the laws of learning and of these the most important being the law of effect. This law states the consequence of a response determines the tendency to respond the same way in future cases will be strengthened or weakened.
B.F. Skinner developed the theory of operant conditioning. He is well known for the Skinner sound proof box which is what he used to conduct his experiments of operant conditioning.
Albert Bandura is known for his cognitive theory. He believes people learn through observation, imitation, and modeling of other's behavior. He is well known for his experiment the bobo doll. It proved that children imitate model’s behavior because they see her get reinforced.
Edward Tolman used