‘Behaviourists Explain Maladaptive Behaviour in Terms of the Learning Principles That Sustain and Maintain It. Discuss This Statement and Show How a Behaviourist’s Approach to Therapy Is in Stark Contrast to a Psychoanalytic.’ Essay examples

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‘Behaviourists explain maladaptive behaviour in terms of the learning principles that sustain and maintain it.
Discuss this statement and show how a behaviourist’s approach to therapy is in stark contrast to a psychoanalytic.’

In this essay I intend to compare and contrast the behaviourist perspective with a psychoanalytical approach to therapy, in relation to the above statement and will explore their fundamental principles and differences.

Throughout the centuries, different methods and techniques have been developed to help enhance the quality of therapy for people who suffer from different types of behaviours. Many theories about how and what therapy is and most effective techniques have been sought
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Pavlov quickly realised that this was a learned response and set out to further investigate the conditioning process.
Classical conditioning involves pairing a previously neutral stimulus (such as the sound of a bell) with an unconditioned stimulus (the taste of food). This unconditioned stimulus naturally and automatically triggers salivating as a response to the food, which is known as the unconditioned response. After associating the neutral stimulus and the unconditioned stimulus, the sound of the bell alone will start to evoke salivating as a response. The sound of the bell is now known as the conditioned stimulus and salivating in response to the bell is known as the conditioned response.

Operant conditioning:

• First described by Burrhus Frederic "B. F." Skinner (1904 –1990), an American psychologist

• Involves applying reinforcement or punishment after a behaviour

• Focuses on strengthening or weakening voluntary behaviours

Operant conditioning focuses on using either reinforcement or punishment to increase or decrease a behaviour. Through this process, an association is formed between the behaviour and the consequences for that behaviour. For example, imagine that a trainer is trying to teach a dog to fetch a ball. When the dog successful chases and picks up the ball, the dog receives praise as a reward. When the animal fails to retrieve the ball, the trainer withholds the praise. Eventually, the dog forms an