Benign Prostate Hypertrophy Essay

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Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), also called benign enlargement of the prostate (BEP), adenofibromyomatous hyperplasia and benign prostatic hypertrophy (technically incorrect usage), is an increase in size of the prostate.
BPH involves hyperplasia of prostatic stromal and epithelial cells, resulting in the formation of large, fairly discrete nodules in the periurethral region of the prostate. When sufficiently large, the nodules compress the urethral canal to cause partial, or sometimes virtually complete, obstruction of the urethra, which interferes with the normal flow of urine. It leads to symptoms of urinary hesitancy, frequent urination, increased risk of urinary tract infections,urinary retention, or contribute to or cause insomnia. Although prostate specific antigen levels may be elevated in these patients because of increased organ volume and inflammation due to urinary tract infections, BPH does not lead to cancer or increase the risk of cancer.{{[1]}}
BPH involves hyperplasia (an increase in the number of cells) rather than hypertrophy (a growth in the size of individual cells), but the two terms are often used interchangeably, even amongst urologists.[2]
Adenomatous prostatic growth is believed to begin at approximately age 30 years. An estimated 50% of men have histologic evidence of BPH by age 50 years and 75% by age 80 years; in 40–50% of these men, BPH becomes clinically significant.[3]
Benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH), is a common cause of urinary dysfunction symptoms in elderly men, results from proliferation of the stromal and epithelial cells of the prostate gland. 164/165. There is a static and dynamic component. The static component increases the the prostate size by smooth muscle cell proliferation in the prostate stroma, whereas the dynamic component contributes to an increase in smooth muscle tone in the prostate and bladder neck.
The term BPH actually refers to hyperplasia.
Rarely detected in men <40. After age 40, the prevalence of BPH is age dependent166. Approximately 75% of men who live to 70 develop some sign of BPH requiring medical attention and approximately 90% of 0ctogenarians have evidence of BPH.
The etiology is fairly consistent in Western and developing countries. The cause is however unknown. The prostate is dependent on androgens both for embrylologic development
And maintenance of size and function in the mature male.
Testosterone, the major circulating androgen, is metabolized to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) by 5-alpha-reductase. For testerone to be active in the prostate to be converted to DHT, DHT is the obligate androgen responsible for normal hyperplastic prostate growth. Within the prostate DHT initiates RNA synthesis, protein synthesis and cell replication.
Stromal hyperplasia in the prostate periurethral glands