September 3, 2014
English, Period 4
1. HWÆT, WE GAR-DEna in geardagum, þeodcyninga þrym gefrunon, hu ða æþelingas ellen fremedon! oft Scyld Scefing sceaþena þreatum, monegum mægþum meodosetla ofteah, egsode eorlas, syððanærest wearð feasceaft funden; he þæs frofre gebad, weox under wolcnum weorðmyndum þah, oð þæt him æghwylc ymbsittendra ofer hronrade hyran scolde, gomban gyldan; þæt wæs god cyning! a. alliteration-line 5: monegum mægþum meodosetla ofteah—> the letter m b. caesura-line 7: feasceaft funden; he þæs frofre gebad—> semi colon in the middle c. 3 Runes-“Asc”-line 3: æþelingas, “Eth”-line 6: syððanærest, “Thorn”- line 11: þæt d. 2 words that survived- line 8: under, line 9: him.
A. Old English 1. Beowulf 2. printing press a.wide-scale distribution made possible b.provided the ability to fix language in time on a grand scale, slowing down the process of language change 3. Made use of unfamiliar letters which mostly derived from runic alphabet a. used by Germanic people b. looked foreign at first glance, also it can look and sound surprisingly modern when a few basics are learned
B. Middle English 1. The Canterbury Tales 2. The Norman invasion of 1066 and its resulting influx of French words into the language meant that the English of 1100 was much more different from the English of 1000 than the differences between the English of 900 and the English of 1000. 3. English underwent grammatical and phonetic changes—>shift from Middle to Modern English
C. Modern English 1. Hamlet-Shakespeare 2. Modern English descends from Old and Middle English
2. The printing press made the wide-spread notion of standard language and spelling possible. The