COMPARING TWO WATER PROVISION METHOD FOR AN ARID REGION (JORDAN)
SUBMITTED TO: Dr. OKOH ADEYI
DATE: 26TH MARCH 2015
Water is said to be the most crucial and valuable resource for all forms of life. An arid region can be characterized as a region with a severe lack of water, to the degree of deterring or preventing the growth and development of plant and animal life, domestic and industrial use1. In some developing countries, arid regions are mostly categorized by poverty and death because of the lack of available water.
One of the greatest challenges facing arid regions today is the easy access to water supply. In recent times, world population is rapidly increasing which also creates a high demand for water supply which can’t be met because water resources are limited.2 According to Howard, Mathias and Xin (2010), about 30% of the world’s total land area is inhabited by arid and semi-arid regions.3
This article is aimed at comparing and recommending water provision and supply methods for the arid region in Jordan. This article will examine water problems in Jordan and compare two water provision methods for Jordan. Environmental impact, cost and public acceptance will be our three major factors and requirements in relation to water provision for Jordan.
Jordan is a small and almost landlocked country located in the Middle East, on the East Bank of the Jordan River in the Arab kingdom. It is bordered by Saudi Arabia to the south and the east, Iraq to the north-east, Syria to the north and Israel and Palestine to the west. Jordan’s climate is semi-dry during the summer with an average temperature of 30 °C and is relatively cool during the winter period, averaging around a temperature of 13 °C4. It is considered to be amongst the world’s top 10 water stressed countries (Ministry of Water and Irrigation, Jordan 2010)5.
Jordan uses surface and ground water sources in order to meet its water demand. Surface waters are used at a lower rate compared to groundwater which is extracted from a non-renewable source. The use of non-conventional water has been on the increasing side especially treated waste water and desalinated water5.
Water resource can’t be managed adequately without required knowledge about water usage, availability and supply in different sectors. Water usage in Jordan is largely divided amongst the industrial, public and agricultural sectors. The municipal and industrial and sectors which include the tourist sector, consume a total of 28% of Jordan’s total water supply, while agriculture and irrigation consume 72% of the water supply (Water for Life, Jordan’s Water Strategy 2008 ‐ 2022). Change in lifestyle and increased income has been one of the major contributors of increased water consumption especially in the urban areas.
ANATOMY OF WATER SCARCITY IN JORDAN:
Due to increasing population the demand for water surpasses the supply which may lead to "water wars" in the future. In the world today the Middle East is one of the most water poor regions. One of the major causes of Jordan’s water scarcity is the rapid increase in the population due to the migration of the Palestinian refugees. Jordan also has an uneven distribution of rainfall. It was proposed that if the population continues to increase at this number by 2025 there be an absolute water shortage.
WATER PROVISION METHODS:
Desalination is the method of removing dissolved salts from water, therefore manufacturing water from saltwater or briny water. Desalting technologies may be used for several applications. The foremost current use is to supply potable water from saline water for domestic or municipal functions; however use of desalination in technologies for industrial applications is growing, particularly within the oil and gas business6.
In the world today 60% of desalination capacity lies in the