Essay on Berger 2e Chp06

Submitted By camila753
Words: 1935
Pages: 8

Emotional Development
Emotional regulation
•Ability to control when and how emotions are expressed
•Possibly due to connections between limbic system and prefrontal cortex

Initiative versus guilt
•Erikson's third psychosocial crisis
•Children undertake new skills and activities and feel guilty when they do not succeed at them

Guilt and Shame
•Self-blame that people experience when they do something wrong

•People's feeling that others blame them, disapprove of them, or are disappointed in them

Pride in Oneself
•Person's evaluation of his or her own worth, either in specifics (e.g., intelligence, attractiveness) or in general

•Person's understanding of who he or she is, incorporating self-esteem, physical appearance, personality, and various personal traits (e.g., gender, size)

Pride in Oneself
Protective Optimism
•Preschoolers predict that they can solve impossible puzzles, remember long lists of words, and control their dreams •Positivity bias helps them try new things

Brain Maturation
Neurological advances
•Growth of prefrontal cortex at about age 4 or 5
•Myelination of the limbic system

Improved behaviors and abilities
•Longer attention span
•Improved capacity for self-control

Intrinsic motivation
•Drive, or reason to pursue a goal
•Comes from inside a person (e.g., need to feel smart or competent) Extrinsic motivation
•Drive, or reason to pursue a goal
•Arises from the need to have achievements rewarded from outside (e.g. by receiving material possessions or another person's esteem)

Culture and Emotional Control
Goals for emotional regulation appear to be important in certain cultures
•Overcome fear (United States)
•Modify anger (Puerto Rico)
•Temper pride (China)
•Control selfishness(Japan)
•Overcome impatience (Native American communities)
•Modify disobedience (Mexico)

Seeking Emotional Balance
Lack of emotional regulation may be an early sign of psychopathology
•Externalizing problems
– Involves expressing powerful feelings through uncontrolled physical or verbal outbursts, as by lashing out at other people or breaking things

•Internalizing problems
– Involves turning one's emotional distress inward, as by feeling excessively guilty, ashamed, or worthless

Sex Differences in Emotional Regulation
Neurological and hormonal effects
•Boys tend to be aggressive (externalizing)
•Girls tend to be anxious (internalizing)

Psychopathology is not typical!
•Children of both sexes usually learn to regulate their emotions as their brains mature and their parents nurture them Play
• Play is the most productive and the most enjoyable activity that children undertake.
• Increasingly complex social play is due to brain maturation coupled with many hours of social play. • Form of play changes with age and culture.

Peers and Play
•Are people of about the same age and social status
•Provide practice in emotional regulation, empathy, and social understanding
•Are preferred play partners over parents

Types of Play: Parten (1932)
• Solitary play: A child plays alone, unaware of any other children playing nearby.
• Onlooker play: A child watches other children play. • Parallel play: Children play with similar toys in similar ways, but not together. • Associative play:
Children interact, observing each other and sharing material, but their play is not yet mutual and reciprocal.
• Cooperative play:
Children play together, creating and elaborating a joint activity or taking turns.

Active Play
Rough-and-tumble play
•Mimics aggression through wrestling, chasing, or hitting with no intention to harm
•Contains expressions and gestures (e.g., play face) signifying that the child is “just pretending”
•Is particularly common among young males
•Advances children's social understanding but increases likelihood of injury
•May positively affect prefrontal cortex development

Sociodramatic Play
Sociodramatic play
•Allows children to act out various roles and themes in