Essay on Bio 111

Submitted By rachelannsmithh
Words: 387
Pages: 2

Macromolecule groups & characteristics

Macromolecules: Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, Nucleic Acids

CARBOHYDRATES:
C:H:O = 1:2:1
Monosaccharides are single sugar units and contain a single chain of carbon atoms to which hydroxyl groups are located
Classified according to functional group present

LIPIDS:
Hydrophobic molecules (nonpolar)
Made of C, H and O
Used for..
Long term energy source
Cell membrane
Synthesis of vitamins
Hormone synthesis
Insulation
Protection for organs
Cuticle in plants
1g of fat stores 2x as much energy than 1g of carbs

PROTEINS:
Most diverse molecules in terms of structure and function
Have many different roles
Composed of monomer units called amino acids (20)

NUCLEIC ACIDS:
Huge polymers of nucleotides
Info macromolecule
Store hereditary information
Determines structural and functional characteristics
Composed of a phosphate monomer consisting of: a phosphate group, a five-carbon sugar (deoxyribose or ribose) and nitrogenous base

List of biotechnology tools & descriptions & their significance

Plasmids small circular pieces of DNA that are found in bacteria replicate independently of chromosomal DNA

Hybridization identifies the cells that contain introduced plasmids with the desired gene gene can be identified by its unique DNA sequence- it will pair with a short, single stranded complimentary DNA called a hybridization probe

Gel Electrophoresis used to separate DNA fragments separation is based on size charged molecules moved through mesh-like gel that separates them all nucleotides negatively charged
DNA fragments migrate through gel at a rate that is inversely proportional to their size
Bigger fragments stay at the top while smaller…