1. Identify the following and describe their role in development of microbiology
A. Robert Hooke- “the English father of microscopy”, he was an inventor, microscopist, physicist surveyor, astronomer, biologist and artist. He wrote Micrographia which was the first illustrated book on microscopy.
B. Antoine van Leeuwenhoek- he was a dutch microscopis, he was the first to observe bacteria and protozoa. He helped lay the foundations for the sciences of bacteriology and protozoology.
C. Louis Pasteur – French chemist and microbiologist. He invented pasteurization and discovered the germ theory of disease.
D. Robert Koch- German doctor founder of modern bacteriology. He is known for isolating Bacillus antheacis, the Tuberculosis bacillus and Vibrio cholera.
E. Edward Jenner- the father of immunology, first experimental vaccination that built immunity against smallpox.
F. Paul Ehrlich- experimented with cells and body tissue that reveled the principles of the immune system. He established the use of chemical drugs to treat disease and found the cure from syphilis.
G. Lister and Fleming- Lister, contributed to a fundamental revolution in surgery by inventing the antiseptic method. Fleming he did an experiment finding out that it could be used for medicine like his discover of penicillin he also discovered chemotherapy.
2. Compare the theories
A. Spontaneous generation- organisms could arise directly and rapidly from nonliving material
B. Spontaneous Biogenesis – organism that are begotten from oter lift forms.
3. The 5 steps of the scientific method
A. Step 1: Ask a question
Step 2: Gather background information
Step 3: Create a hypothesis
Step 4: Test the hypothesis by experimenting
Step 5: Create a conclusion off of the test and its results
4. After the outbreak of SARS in Hong Kong in 2003, was caused by improper training and inadequate infection-control measure.
A. Health care workers used “universal precautions” in situations like this. These precautions include
1. Gown, gloves, masks, shoe coverings, washing hands, eye wear, isolations.
B. Other possibilities of emerging diseases that are taking lives are
1. Lack of education
2. International Travel
3. Antibiotic resistance
4. Humans pushing on the ecosystems
5. Pathological changes in the environment
5. Out of the most common infectious diseases in the world the 2 I think are not a big problem in the U.S. is
1. Tetanus, because we are vaccinated for this, the only people that might be affected are the elderly people since they don’t get the shot again to reactivate the vaccine.
2. Parasitic Disease, because we have certain stagnation rules we have to follow.
6. How you could prevent this error is by isolating the agent because it is a virus.
The Chemistry of biology
1. A. the atoms that must be present in a molecule for it to be considered organic are:
2. Hydrogen B. The characteristics of carbon that make it ideal for the formation of organic compounds are
1. Carbon has the ability to form long chains of covalent bonds which makes for many forms C. Functional Groups- are an arraignment of atoms common to all members of a class of organic molecules, such as the amine group found in all amino acids
2. The characterization of carbohydrate’s
3. The characterization of lipids, water hydrophobic, long, macromolecules. Some of the functions lipids do are provide fats, help keep cell membranes.
4. The building blocks of proteins are
5. The characterization of nucleic acids, DNA, RNA, ATP. The functions nucleic acids preform is the composition of phosphate groups and sugars
6. Define Polar and Nonpolar properties and give 3 examples of polar and nonpolar chemicals
A. Polar- in cell morphology, pertaining to either end of cell e.g. polar flagella Type of bond in which there is unequal sharing of electrons…