Bio 211 project Essay

Submitted By avelene345
Words: 1669
Pages: 7

Candace Antoine
Bio 211 Research Paper
Due: 12/12/12 Herpes Virus Infections (Gingivostomatitis, Neonatal Herpes, Genital Herpes)

Herpes is a huge health problem. Twenty million to 30 million Americans have recurrent genital herpes outbreaks, and 700,000 new genital herpes simplex virus infections occur every year. More than 2,000 babies are born with a herpes infection annually, even though 40,000 caesarians are performed due to a fear of transmitting herpes from mother to child. This paper will be discussing the infections Gingivostomatitis, Neonatal Herpes, and Genital Herpes caused by herpes simplex virus. How can we describe the Herpes Virus? I can be described as any virus belonging to a group of DNA-containing viruses, which have similar structures but few other properties in common. They are: herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) (human herpes virus 1); herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) (human herpes virus 2); varicella-zoster virus (VZV) (human herpes virus 3); Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) (human herpes virus 4); cytomegalovirus (CMV) (human herpes virus 5); human herpes virus 6 (HHV-6); human herpes virus 7 (HHV-7); and human herpes virus 8 (HHV-8). The herpes simplex virus is a complex high-performance engine designed to replicate itself. When it enters a human host, it encounters an army of cellular defense proteins designed to turn off these engines and prevent the virus from multiplying. The success of herpes virus infections depends upon several methods. The first is the fast efficient way the virion invades the host cell, turning off host protein synthesis and releasing viral DNA into the nucleus, where replication and virion production start immediately. Another strategy that herpes viruses share is the ability to prevent attacks from the host. Tactics include inhibiting splicing of mRNA, blocking presentation of antigenic peptides on the cell surface and blocking the apoptosis or cell death induced by viral gene expression. A third important strategy shared by herpes viruses is their ability to hide their bare, circularized genome in the nucleus of lymphoma and central nervous system cells and then return to productive infection months, sometimes years later. These latent herpes virus infections are often benign, but can be devastating to newborns and weakened immune system individuals. Gingivostomatitis Gingivostomatitis is the long name for a condition that results in a very sore mouth caused by herpes simplex 1 and is common in children. The symptoms can be mild or severe. Most people carry around the viruses that can cause the condition with no signs or symptoms. In fact, the child’s bout of gingivostomatitis may be their initial infection with the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), which most people pick up in early childhood and carry for the rest of their lives. The initial infection usually goes unnoticed, but if it does make itself known, it does so in the form of gingivostomatitis. The illness usually starts with a fever before the first mouth sores appear. Sores in the mouth may form on the lips, gums, tongue, and cheeks. Often the gums are very red and bleed easily. The fever usually lasts for a few days. The painful mouth sores last 3 to 5 days before they start to get better. It will take about 14 days before the sores completely heal. Diagnosis is usually a blood test or culture test of a newly formed sore. How is Gingivostomatitis treated? Because this is a viral infection, antibiotics in most cases do not help. But sometimes doctors use antibiotics such as Penicillin and Erythromycin to help slow down or weaken the virus. Children's acetaminophen or ibuprofen can help relieve pain and lower fever. Also drinking plenty of fluids and eating watery foods like apple sauce, or ice pops helps. After the mouth sores heal, the virus remains in the body and can become