Bio 226 StudyQ Ch 9 Essay

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Biology 226/Summer 2015
Dr. Beth Braun/Study Questions – Chapter 9

Reading in Chapter 9: Pages 276-285; 289-307

1. Name the 3 main types of muscle tissue, and the key characteristics of each type.

2. List and briefly describe the characteristics of all muscle tissue.

3. List and briefly describe the functions performed by muscle tissue.

4. What is another name for a skeletal muscle cell?

5. Name and briefly describe each level of structural organization of muscle tissue, starting with the cellular level progressing to the organ level.

6. List and briefly describe the connective tissue sheaths which organize muscle tissue.

7. What are the 2 different types of muscle attachment to bone? Give a specific example of each one.

8. a. Name each level of structural organization within a skeletal muscle cell.

b. Briefly describe the molecular composition of each level.

9. a. Name the contractile (functional) unit of skeletal muscle tissue.

b. Identify the key components of this unit on a diagram.

Biology 226/Dr. Braun/Study Questions – Chapter 9

c. Which components of the contractile unit move and therefore produce muscle contraction?

d. Where is ionic calcium stored in the contractile unit?

10. Name the model which describes muscle contraction based on the molecular changes within the cell.

11. What is the physiological meaning of “contraction”?

12. a. Name the sequence of events which converts a nerve signal into muscle contraction.

b. List and briefly describe the key steps in this sequence.

c. Which step is the basis of muscle contraction?

d. What role does calcium ions play in this sequence?

13. Briefly describe the molecular changes that produce rigor mortis, and the eventual relaxation of muscle tissue which follows it.

14. a. What is the cross-bridge cycle?

b. List and briefly describe the key events in this cycle.

15. Briefly explain the difference between muscle tension and muscle tone.

Biology 226/Dr. Braun/Study Questions – Chapter 9

16. What is a muscle twitch? How is it related to muscle tetanus?

17. Briefly explain the difference between complete and incomplete tetanus.

18. What controls the force of muscle contraction at the molecular level?

19. Distinguish 3 different types of muscle stimuli – threshold, subthreshold, maximal.

20. Explain the difference between an isotonic and an isometric contraction.

21. Explain the difference between a concentric and an eccentric contraction.

22. a. Name the 3 metabolic pathways which produce ATP in muscle tissue.

b. For each pathway, note how much ATP is produced, how long it can generate energy, and whether it uses oxygen.

23. What molecule provides energy after 30 seconds of exercise?

24. How is ATP produced during long-term exercise?

25.…