Essay on Bio Midterm Study Guide

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Midterm Study Guide

Is reproduction necessary for the continued life of a single organism?


Living things are based on a universal genetic code.

Q: What is that code?

A: In terms of genetic code- what’s the difference between organisms that reproduce asexually and those that reproduce sexually?

Q: How do we get bacteria that are resistant to anti-biotic.

A: They evolve.

Q: Living things grow and develop:

A: Cells become specialized for different functions.

Living things obtain and use material and energy.
The combination of chemical reactions through which an organism builds up or breaks down materials is called METABOLISM. Enzymes as well.

Life processes
A. Nutrition
C. Respiration
D. Excretion
E. Synthesis

• Living things respond to the environment Organisms respond to stimuli in the environment.

• A stimulus is a signal to which an organism responds.
• Plants leaves grow toward the sun. Roots always grow down

• Living things maintain a stable internal environment.

• All living things expend energy to keep conditions inside their cells within certain limits. This condition is called homeostasis.

• For Example: you shiver when you are too cold to help maintain temperature. You sweat when you are too warm. Birds provide insulation to keep the bird warm.
• Living things change over time

• Over generations, groups of organisms evolve, or change over time.

• Evidence of these changes are found in fossils and DNA.

What is a controlled experiment?

What are Variables?

A hypothesis is an educated guess, based on observation. Ususally, a hypothesis can be supported or refuted through experimentation or more observation. A hypothesis can be disproven, not proven to be true.

A law generalizes a body of observations. At the time it is made no exceptions have been found to a law.

A scientific theory summarizes a hypothesis or group of hypotheses that have been supported with repeated testing. A theory is valid as long as there is no evidence to dispute it. Therefore, theories can be disproven.

Water is important for living things because it hydrates and your body is mostly made up of it.

All living things need water.
Polar- Oxygen has a strong positive charge that’s why it attracts electrons.
Part of the compound has a more positive charge; other part has a less positive or negative charge. Oxygen is more positive. Hydrogen is more negative.
Hydrogen bonding
• Cohesion
• Adhesion
• High heat capacity
Universal Solvent
Ionic bond- Transferring Electrons. Strong bond.
Covalent bond- Elements are sharing electrons. Not as strong.
Hydrogen bond- Weakest bond. Forms bong between two water molecules.
Water as surface tension because hydrogen bonds form between them. Because all the molecules all these bonds are forming. It creates a lattice structure and certain creatures can walk across them.
Cohesion- Attraction of molecules of the same substance. I.e. Water is cohesive.
Adhesion- The attraction of molecules of things besides water. I.e. Water and glass.
Meniscus (the line that is indented on the graduated cylinder) forms because of the adhesion to glass.
Heat capacity of water- The amount of heat a certain substance can hold until it is altered or deformed. Water has a very high heat capacity. It takes a lot of time to raise the temperature, but it also takes a lot of time for it to be released.

Universal Solvent- Like Denatured Alcohol. It dissolves things.

We are composed of 4 main elements. H-O-N-C
Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Carbon.

Carbon can bond with itself.

Carbon can bond with other atoms
Atom- Smallest part of an element.
Monomers- Smaller units of compounds.
Polymers-Many monomers attached to one another.
Atoms are the building blocks of monomers
Monomers are

The 4 main Biological Molecules