Bio Notes Kaity Essay example

Submitted By Kaitlynnrudyk
Words: 798
Pages: 4

A1.3k & A1.4k
Trophic level
- A category of living things defined by how it gains its energy; the first trophic level contains autotrophs, and each higher level contains heterotrophs.
- An organism that is able to form nutritional organic substances from simple inorganic substances such as carbon dioxide. (a plant)
- an organism deriving its nutritional requirements from organic substances.
(herbivores, omnivores, carnivores)

Explanation of Trophic Levels
- Energy decreases as it moves up trophic levels because energy is lost as metabolic heat when the organisms from one trophic level are consumed by organisms from the next level. Energy is transferred through the trophic levels of a food chain or web by feeding.The first trophic level (producers) are plants which are examples of autotrophs. Photosynthesis occurs when the plants use solar energy and convert it into chemical energy. Once this has happened the energy can be taken up by the primary consumers which are the second trophic level (herbivores and omnivores). Secondary consumers also need to gain energy in some way, and this is by eating the primary consumers that have gained energy from the producers.Energy transfer occurs in a food chain or web by an organism digesting another organism on the trophic level below it. except on the first trophic level that consists of producers which of course gain their energy from the sun (photosynthesis)
Food chain
- Is a step by step sequence of whom eats whom in the biosphere
Food web
- A more complex (realistic) description of who eats whom
(stable ecosystems have complex food webs)

Some Definitions
Reservoir- a natural or artificial place where water is collected and stored for use, especially water for supplying a community, irrigating land, furnishing power
Cellular Respiration- chemical equation between organic molecules and oxygen that produces carbon dioxide, water and energy.
PMF- proton motive force is the energy generated by the transfer of protons and electrons across an energy
Mitochondria- an organelle found in large numbers in most cells, in which the biochemical processes of respiration and energy production occur. Gradient- The change in concentration of a substance over distance or across a membrane.
Adenosine Triphosphate- Adenosine triphosphate (
) is considered to be the energy currency of life. It is the energy molecule that stores the energy we need to do just about everything we do.
Metabolic Heat- heat that comes from animals uncoupling- the process of electron transport is COUPLED to the formation of ATP. When this process becomes "uncoupled," that means electron transport continues, but formation of ATP stops

Kinetic Energy- Is energy of motion. The kinetic energy of an object is the energy it possesses because of its motion.

Energy Transfer “Simplified”
Conduction is the process of heat (energy) transfer in

solids from a point of higher temperature to a point of lower temperature, without the actual movement of the particles of the solid.
When a higher energy object comes into contact with a lower energy object, energy is transferred from the higher energy object to the lower energy object.
Think of a pot or pan set on a stove. The heat causes molecules in the pot or pan to vibrate faster,