• Molecule: (can be an element or a compound) 2 or more atoms chemically bonded together- smallest it can be divided and retain essential chemical properties
• Element: Pure substances that cannot be broken down chemically different/smaller substances
• Compound: when elements combine chemically
1st and 2nd Laws of Thermodynamics:
Law of Conservation Energy: Energy cannot be created nor destroyed, only changed in form. The amount of energy in the universe is constant. Solar Conversion- breaking into mechanical energy and heat and mechanical energy and heat
System change towards a state of disorder without an input of energy. Entropy or disorder of the universe is increasing. Closed systems like the universe is entropy, open systems like the earth use an energy input to reduce entropy and increase order.
• 2NaI + Cl2 2NaCl + I2
Reactants: NaI + Cl2
Products: NaCl + I2
How many atoms of each element are in the reactants?: 2Na, 2I, 2Cl
How many atoms of each element are in the product?: 2Na, 2Cl, 1I2
How many molecules are in the reactants once balanced?: 1Cl2
How many molecules are in the product once balanced?: 2NaCl, 1I2
• What five elements make up most of the compounds in every organism? Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Phosphate, (Sulphur)
• Which two elements occur in all organic compounds? Carbon, Hydrogen
• List the four compounds, their monomers, polymers, monomer structure, food sources, and organic functions. : Monomers Polymers Monomer Structure Food Sources Organic Functions
(C,H,O) Monosaccharides: single sugars
Galactose Disaccharides: 2 sugars
Sucrose, Maltose, Lactose
Polysaccharides: Many sugars
Starch (plants store excess glucose in this molecule), Glycogen (animals store excess glucose), Cellulose (fiber or roughage in plants) C6H12O6 Anything sweet or starchy:
Sugar, honey, fruit, tice, potatoes, breads, cereals, vegetables, milk, candies, cake, etc. Short term energy storage, structure of plant cell walls, fiber to aid in elimination (bathroom)
Lipids (fats, oils, waxes)
(C, H, O) Fatty acids and glycerol Monoglycerides: 1 fatty acid
Diglyceride: 2 fatty acids
Triglyceride: 3 fatty acids Butter, margarine, vegetable oils, fatty meats, whole milk dairy products, nuts, seeds, pastries, (best) olive oil Long term energy storage, cell membranes, insulation and protection, hormones, and nerve insulation
(C, H, O, N, (S) Amino acids: essential- body cannot make (eat them)
Non-essential: body can make them Polypeptide Chains- amino acids that are chemically bonded into polypeptides and chains of amino acids that will fold and curl to become protein (3D) caused by weak hydrogen bonds Meat, fish, poultry, non-fat dairy products, brown rice and beans, nuts, seeds Structure, control of all chemical reactions in the body (enzymes), movement, transport hemoglobin, hormones
(C, H, O, N, P) Nucleotides- Nucleic acids (DNA, RNA) Composed of sugar(deoxyribose or ribose) , a phosphate group, and nitrogenous base All fresh foods Heredity, DNA stores genetic info, DNA controls all cell activities, RNA is involved in helping to make proteins according to DNA’s message
• Oparin and the Hetertroph Hypothesis: ????????
• What is the difference between a prokaryotic and a eukaryotic cell?
Eukaryotic cells contain membrane-bound organelles, such as the nucleus, while prokaryotic cells do not. Differences in cellular structure of prokaryotes and eukaryotes include the presence of mitochondria and chloroplasts, the cell wall, and the structure of chromosomal DNA.
• Name the organelles:
Cell Membrane: selectively permeable; only allows certain substances in or out of the cell.
Cytosol: jelly like substance where many chemical reactions occur; holds the organelles
Cytoplasm= cytosol+ organelles
Proteins: Structure transport communication- enzymes