Bio Terms Essays

Submitted By Marina-Luo
Words: 747
Pages: 3

Chapter 7: Section 3,4
Linkage map – diagram that shows the relative locations of genes on a chromosome
Pedigree – chart of the phenotypes and genotypes in a family that is used to determine whether an individual is a carrier of a recessive allele.
Karyotype – image of all of the chromosome in a cell

Chapter 8.1
Bacteriophage – virus that infects bacteria

Chapter 8.2
Nucleotide – monomer that forms DNA and has a phosphate group, a sugar, and a nitrogen base
Double helix – model that compares the structure of a DNA molecule, in which two strands wind around one another, to that of a twisted ladder
Base pairing rules – rule that describes how nucleotides form bonds in DNA; adenine (A) always bonds with thymine (T), and guanine (G) always bonds with cytosine (C)

Chapter 8.3
Replication – process by which DNA is copied
DNA polymerase – enzyme that makes bonds between nucleotides, forming an identical strand of DNA during replication

Chapter 8.4
Central dogma – theory that states that, in cells, information only flows from DNA to RNA to proteins
RNA – nucleic acid molecule that allows for the transmission of genetic information and protein synthesis
Transcription – process of copying a nucleotide sequence of DNA to form a complementary strand of mRNA
RNA polymerase – enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of a complementary strand of RNA from a DNA template mRNA – form of RNA that carries genetic information from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, where it serves as a template for protein synthesis rRNA – RNA that is in the ribosome and guides the translation of mRNA into a protein tRNA – form of RNA that brings amino acids to ribosomes during protein synthesis

Chapter 8.5
Translation – process by which mRNA is decoded and a protein is produced
Codon – sequence of the nucleotides that codes for one amino acid
Stop codon – codon that signals ribosomes to stop translation
Start codon – codon that signals ribosomes to begin translation; codes for the first amino acid in a protein
Anti-codon – set of three nucleotides in a tRNA molecule that binds to a complementary mRNA codon during translation

Chapter 8.6
Promoter – section of DNA to which RNA polymerase binds, starting the transcription of mRNA
Operon – section f DNA that contains all of the code to begin transcription, regulate transcription, and build a protein

Chapter 8.7
Mutation – change in the DNA sequence
Point mutation – mutation that involves a substitution of only one nucleotides
Frameshift mutation - mutation that involves the insertion of deletion a a nucleotide in the sequence
Mutagen – agent that can induce or increase the frequency of mutation in organisms Chapter 9.1
Restriction enzyme – enzymes that cut DNA molecules a specific nucleotide
Gel electrophoresis – method of separating various length of DNA strands by applying and electrical current to a gel
Restriction map – diagram that shows the lengths of fragments between restriction sites in the strand of DNA

Chapter 9.2
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) – method for increasing the quality of DNA by separating in two strands and adding