Bio175Exam2 StudyGuide Essays

Submitted By DeeAnn-Reynolds
Words: 1526
Pages: 7

Bio175 Exam 2 Study Guide

Notes: Overview of Bones

Name the two divisions of the skeletal system and identify bones belonging to each of those divisions.
The axial which consists of the skull, vertebrae, ribs, and sternum.
The appendicular which consists of the upper and lower limbs as well as our girdles.
Describe the functions of the skeletal system.
Support- forms internal framework, supports and anchors soft organs, legs support body trunk, and the rib cage supports thoracic wall.
Protection- skull protects our brain, vertebrae protects the spinal cord, and ribcage protects our thoracic organs.
Movement- tendons connect skeletal muscles to bone.
Storage- Fat in internal cavities of bones and stores minerals such as calcium and phosphorous.
Blood cell formation- also known as Hematopoiesis which occurs within the marrow cavities of some bones.
Identify the type of tissue osseous tissue represents.
Compact is dense and looks smooth.
Spongy is needle like pieces of bone that is very open.
Trabeculae and bars
Classify bones based on their shape.
Long bones- loner than they are wide, shaft with heads at both ends, mostly compact bone, makes up the limbs except tarsals and carpals.
Short bones- cube-shaped bones made mostly of spongy bone, makes up the wrist and ankle. sesamoid bones are a special type of short bone that forms within tendons and is found on the patella.
Flat bones- thin, flat, usually curved, made of a layer of spongy bone between 2 waffer like layers of compact bone, and are the skull, ribs, and sternum.
Irregular bones- Do not fit into another category, examples are the vertebrae, and hip bones
Structure of a long bone.
Diaphysis- the shaft of the bone, the lengthy part of the bone, and is made of compact bone
Periosteum- is the fibrous membrane that covers the diaphysis.
Sharpey’s fibers- secure the periosteum to the underlying bone
Epiphysis- the ends of the long bone, also a thin layer of compact bone enclosing the spongy bone.
Articular Cartilage- covers external surface of the epiphysis, made of hyaline cartilage, has a smooth slippery surface, and helps decrease friction at joint surfaces.
Epiphyseal line and plate- the line is the remnant of the epiphyseal plate and indicates the end of puberty.
The plate is found in young growing bones, causes lengthwise growth of long bone, made of hyaline cartilage.
Adult shaft cavity- contains yellow marrow, stores adipose tissue, and is also known as the medullary cavity
Infant shaft cavity- contains red marrow and form rbc.
Distinguish between the two types of bone markings (projections and depressions).
Projections- also known ask processes grow out from bones, sites muscle attachment, and form joints.
Depressions- or cavities are indentations, openings, and or passageways for nerves and blood vessels.
Identify various terms as being either a projection/process or depression/cavity. Use table found in skeletal system 1 pp
Describe the structure of compact bone.
Osteocytes- mature bone cells inside the lacunae
Lacunae- cavities within the matrix that are arranged in a concentric circle.
Lamellae- the concentric circles
Central (Haversian) Canal- carries blood vessels and nerves to the bone.
Osteon- or the Haversian system is the central canal and matrix rings
Canaliculi- the tiny canals that radiate outward from the central canal.
They supply the lacunae and connect the bone cells to the nutrient supply.
Perforating canals- or Volkmann’s Canals communication pathways from the outside of the bone to the interior.
Describe the process of bone formation.
Hyaline cartilage covered with bon matrix, Hyaline cartilage digested, opens up medullary cavity.
Distinguish between bone lengthening (bone formation) and bone widening (bone remodeling) and the factors responsible for regulating each.
Explain the role of PTH, calcitonin, and stress on bone remodeling.
PTH- or Parathyroid hormone breaks down the bones by stimulating osteoclasts. This happens because the blood