Bioengineering a New Heart When a heart is failing, there are not many treatments options available other than transplanting a donor heart that is in better condition. Although this method has been proven to be effective, the patient with the new heart will face a life of immunosuppression drugs and laundry list of possible other complications, including issues with their kidneys and that is if they are lucky enough to obtain a donor heart. As the science of bioengineering progresses, the possibility for creating replacement organs no longer seems to be just an idea. With the rate of heart failure on the rise and the severe lack of donor hearts, scientists have been working on several potential new treatments, injectable biomaterial, myocardial patches, and even a whole bioartificial heart, but these new biotechnologies bring upon a slew of bioethical issues that must be sorted out before the science will be able to advance. As of 2008, heart failure is a condition that affects about 22 million people worldwide, 5 million of those cases are in the United States. Those numbers have only been growing. Once a heart has reached end-stage failure, the only option for that patient is to have a donor heart transplanted. This whole procedure, while it has been proven to work, is much more complicated than just cutting out someone’s heart and sewing it into someone else. Several aspects have to be similar for a donor heart to be properly matched, such as the donor’s and recipient’s body size and weight. Location to the hospital is also another consideration, due to the fact that thoracic organs can only survive outside the body for about 4-6 hours. On top of that, the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) must be as similar as possible; the body will reject the organ if they are too different. With the millions of possible MHCs, an exact match is very unlikely, so the recipient will then have to use drugs to suppress the immune system for the rest of his or her life. The operation itself has a risk of organ rejection, sepsis, and other secondary infections. The required use of immunosuppression drugs after the operation will only increase the risk of developing the mentioned difficulties. The kidney issues that appear after a transplant are typically caused by the immunosuppression drugs themselves. With all the complications associated with heart transplants, any type of new technology in this field has many obstacles to overcome to prove it is a better treatment. Scientists have been developing technologies that will not only increase the availability of donor hearts, but will also dissolve the need for immunosuppressive drugs and may even disband the need for the heart transplant surgery all together. Tissue engineering seems to be the most promising technology in organ replacement. The idea behind this technology is utilizing as much of the patient’s own cells as possible. This eliminates the many of the problems with organ rejection and immune system suppression. To create this bioartifical heart, a donor heart is essentially washed with detergents to remove all of the cells that belonged to the previous owner, but leaving the main structural framework of the heart. The recipient’s cells are then grown and allowed to attach to the empty scaffold, thus creating a new, structurally sound, and functional heart. There have been some setbacks with this procedure such as low survival rates for the newly grown cells and the inability to fully impregnate the donor heart with the grown cells. One group of research have successfully decellularized and re-cellularized rat hearts. Eight days of maturation later, the hearts were drug responsive and contracting. Researchers are making progress with these difficulties, but clinically acceptable applications are still some years away. Other ways that tissue engineering is aiding in the search for new heart transplant technologies is by trying to avoid the need for a transplant at…
Acute heart failure
heart failure that develops suddenly (often due to a heart attack). Although it may be severe initially, it may only last for a brief time and improve rapidly.
A low number of red blood cells or a low amount of haemoglobin in your blood cells, resulting in reduced oxygen delivery to tissues and organs.
pain or discomfort in the chest as a result of reduced blood supply to a part of the heart muscle. It is usually caused by…
The Heart muscle
This article is about the heart and how it works in the body. Every heart is made up of three layers. An inner lining called the endocardium, a middle layer of muscle called the myocardium, an outer fluid-filled sac known as the pericardium. The heart is divided into four chambers each of the chambers has valves. The valves have different names. The tricuspid valve is at the exit of the right atrium, mitral valve is for the left atrium pulmonary valve is at the exit of the right…
Heart Part 2
Heart beat is controlled by Autonomic Nervous System
* Cardiac center in medulla oblongata (in brain stem)
Cardio-acceleratory center | Cardio-inhibitory center |
- Innervates SA and AV nodes, heart muscle and coronary arteries with sympathetic neurons | - Inhibits SA and AV nodes with parasympathetic fibers in vagus nerves |
Vasomotor center in Medulla
Pressor area: increase blood pressure via vasoconstriction
Depressor area: decreases blood pressure by inhibiting…
HEART DISSECTION LAB
Matthew Correia | Olivia Ibbott | Melissa Machado | Michael Pileggi
23 Feb. 2015
The purpose the study being conducted is to investigate and apply principles in class with regards to the structure and make up of the heart.
See attached sheets for drawings.
1.a) The pig hearts general shape is a fist it is skinny at the top (aorta)and gradually gets bigger as it progress down.
b) The difference…
Heart Transplant or Total Artificial Heart
Western Governors University
Cardiovascular diseases are responsible for roughly 600,000 deaths each year, making heart disease the leading cause of death in the United States (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2012). There are many types of heart conditions and diseases that have required medical professionals to develop and trial new procedures, devices, and forms of treatment. This presentation focuses on two surgical procedures…
unhealthy, event that could increase the severity of an undesired event. It is helpful to know the risk factors for heart disease so you know how to prevent heart failure. The older a person is, the more likely they are to develop a condition. Gender, family history, tobacco, alcohol intake, the amount of exercise, diet, cholesterol, diabetes, and blood pressure are all risk factors for heart disease. Some risk factors are under a person’s control, while others increase, so does the risk. Some religious…
faster symptoms or signs can be found, the quicker they can become treated. One of the many outcomes of heart disease includes myocardial infarction, better known as the heart attack. Every year, over a million people in America have heart attacks. During a myocardial infarction the blood flow to a part of the heart is blocked, causing damage or death to that area of the heart muscle. Usually, when heart attacks occur there are noticeable symptoms, which lead the person or hopefully someone else to seek…
TOPIC: Workouts for the heart.
Hook: Could you be working out to much? Even though it is good to work out your heart needs a break! If you work out intensly everyday your heart can become too muscular and can soon lead to heart problems and/or death. Give your heart a break by taking a day off from your work out.
1. How often do you work out?
2. Do you watch your heart rate when you work out?
3. Do you take days to relax?
4. How often do you check your pulse?
5. Do you know what…
we’ll talk about how the heart pumps blood.
We’ve heard about hearts in various places such as during Valentine’s Day or having a broken heart. But does anyone know why the heart is such an important organ of the body?
Your heart is a muscle that pumps blood around the body. The blood provides the necessary oxygen and nutrients to the body. It also carries away waste. So pumping the blood around the body is a very important function of the heart.
So how does the heart actually pump the blood…
a current patient with heart failure being nursed in a community setting. Due to confidentiality and patient privacy, the patient discussed will be referred to as John¹.
John is an 82 year old gentleman who lives alone in sheltered accommodation. John’s son and daughter live close and take it in turns to visit daily. John is an ex-smoker who gave up 20 years ago, has long standing hypertension and is overweight having a BMI of 30 kg/m.
John was diagnosed with heart failure a year ago after…