Understanding the basis of how cancer’s develop as well as the cell’s machinery has led to preventative measures to delay or reduce the likely occurrence of cancer. Health care campaigns and various health representatives have helped individuals gain a deeper understanding of ways such as early detection and lifestyle changes. Huff J.(2011). Studies and research has shed light on facts such as smoking, poor dietary habits and the identification of carcinogens attribute to the development of the disease.(AIHW,2008). Smoking campaigns and education has deeply influenced many due to the research establishing of tobacco and lung cancer, illustrating that public knowledge through interventions strategies have reduced the deaths due to lung cancer. Early detection of most cancers give individuals a chance to for medical care to use preventative strategies and treatment to delay its onset or progress to a later stage. Advancements in screening has made it possible to treat the disease before it reaches a symptomatic stage.(NCC,2007). Routine mammograms for women aged 50-69 have helped reduce the risk of dying of breast cancer by 25%(AIHW,1997). However not all cancers can be detected by screening therefore current and future cancer research is to gain better insight in developing molecular biomarkers to increase survival rates(AIHW,1997). Developments of vaccines for hepatitis B was the world’s first cancer prevention vaccine available to prevent hepatocellular carcinoma.(NCC,2007). Development of a vaccine against 70% of cervical cancer due to HPV 16 and 18 has made these cancers preventable.(AIHW,2003). These vaccines played a significant role in reducing the mortality rate for bacterial and viral cancers.(Raabe EH, Kim JM, Alexander M.,2010).
Controversy has plagued chemotherapy due to its side effects however, this invasive method have helped cure a majority of cancers in certain individuals.(AIHW,2008).
Technology has helped surgeons to use methods such as radiotheraphy in surgery to gain access in isolated areas of the human body and preserve tissue.( Delaney G, Jacob S, Featherstone C, Barton M.,2005). Palliative care and supportive therapy has advanced throughout the years with a better understanding of an individual’s pain threshold and the pain mechanisms with cancer. Treatment is indeed safer