BIOL319 Exam 3 Complete Review Essay

Submitted By Taylor-Stolt
Words: 7729
Pages: 31

*It’s that time again! I’ll add each review as he posts them. Don’t adjust colors, etc.--except for answers in one diff color unless you have saved it on your own desktop, thanks!

***make sure not to try and copy this document because it could delete the entire thing, if you want to save it go to file and then download it****


Study guide for lecture that was cancelled:
Page 253
-Be able to recognize the definition of a bursa or a tendon sheath. Be able to recognize these structures in diagram 8.4
Bursae--flattened fibrous sacs lined with synovial membrane and containing a thin film of synovial fluid; they occur where ligaments, muscles, skin, tendons, or bones rub together reduces friction by rolling between structures
Tendon sheath--elongated bursa that wrap completely around a tendon subjected to friction (like a bun around a hotdog); common where several tendons are crowded together within narrow canals (wrist)

-What type of joint is most stable based on the geometry of their “articular surfaces”?
Ball and Socket - elaborate?
Ball and socket of the Hip joint is what is said in the book. Some joints have shallow sockets or noncomplementary articulating surfaces (misfits) that actually hinder joint stability. So the smooth articular surface of the hip joint or shoulder (which are ball and socket joints) would provide a ‘cleaner’ movement of the bones within the socket. There would basically be little hindering the movements within a ball and socket joint.

Page 254,255
-Do not worry about table 8.2, except to the extent that some of the material may have been mentioned in the previous lecture.
-Know the names of the three basic factors that contribute to joint stability. the ball and deep socket of the hip joint provide the best example of a joint made stable by the shape of its articular surfaces--due to the fact that the surfaces are large and fit snugly together

shapes of articular surfaces number and positioning of ligaments muscle tone

-How extensible are ligaments; how elastic? they are not very elastic; when they are placed under undue tension they stretch to about 6% of their resting length. They are also not very extensible because they do not tolerate stretching well and if stretched too much will never naturally return to their original length.
-Are they like rubber bands or like “taffy”? they are more akin to taffy because they are inelastic
-About what % of the length can a ligament be stretched before it may start to tear? a ligament can only be stretched 6% of its length before it snaps
-Define “muscle tone”; what joints mentioned are especially good examples whose stability benefits from muscle tone? muscle tone--low levels of contractile activity in relaxed muscles that keep the muscles healthy and ready to react to stimulation important in reinforcing the shoulder and knee joints and arches of the foot

Pages 256-259
Know and understand the definition of the following terms origin- part of the muscle that is attached to an immovable (or less moveable) bone insertion- part of the muscle that is attached to a moveable bone
-angular categories of movement (ie, nonaxial, uniaxial, biaxial, multiaxial). non-axial movement- slipping movements only, since there is no axis around which movement can occur - example? wrist uniaxial movement- movement in one plane biaxial movement- movement in two planes multi-axial movement- movement in/around all three planes of space and axes
-Read and study pages using figure 8.5( a –f) and the text associated with it making sure to know and understand all terms describing the illustrated movement.
Flexion- bending movement (usually along sagittal plane) decreases angle of joint brings articulating bones closer together extension- reverse of flexion & occurs in same joints increases angle between articulating bones straightens flexed limb or body part hyperextension- extension beyond anatomical position