Biology 160 Essay

Submitted By AngiOGram1
Words: 830
Pages: 4

Biology Study Guide for Test on Monday

Energy- Ability to do work.
Work is a force to move an object.

2 Types of Energy
Potential (resting energy)- is the energy of the movement.
Kinetic (movement energy)- is energy of an object in motion. Energy of motion, an object that has motion whether it’s vertical or horizontal motions, it has Kinetic motion.

Laws of Thermodynamics * Energy can neither be created nor destroyed. * Energy can be transformed from one to another but in the process of transformation it loses useful energy. The amount of useful energy decreases. * Entropy- (Chaos or disorder) increases.

2 Types of Chemical Reactions
These are Chemical Reactions based on gain or loss of energy.
Exergonic- when energy is lost. “down-hill effect”
Exergonic reactions are the reactants(substrates) contain more energy than products.

Endergonic- when energy is gained. “up-hill effect”
Endergonic reaction requires an input of energy. Products contain more energy than reactants(substrates). Example: Photosynthesis

Inside your cells, there are constant Exergonic and Endergonic reactions coupled up. Example: “Excersise at the gym” Enzymes
Sugars ----------- sugar burns + useful energy to pumps iron + some waste energy

Sugar contains energy but the products has less energy than the reactants.
This is an Exergonic Reaction.

A.T.P. (input energy) + Amino Acids + Amino Acids + Amino Acids----
= (Amino Acids, Amino Acids, Amino Acids”Protein”)
The reactants have less energy where as the products have more energy.
This is an Endergonic Reaction

A.T.P.- (Adeosine Triphosphate)- energy currency of the cell, this is the most common energy carrying molecule.
A.T.P. is composed of an Adenosine molecule and 3 phosphates.
A.T.P. is an energy a cell can use anytime, once you make it you have to use it in a minute, or else it goes to long term storage. “Fat, Liver and Protein”

N.A.D.- Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide
F.A.D- Flauin Adenine Dinucleotide
N.A.D. and F.A.D. – are electron energy carriers.

A.T.P, N.A.D. and F.A.D. are spontanious reactions that happen rather fast.

A barrier energy that will not let things (chemical reactions) to occur spontaneously.
Without a barrier, life would be very unstable. Enzymes are catalysts that speed up chemical reactions by lowering the energy of activation.
Catalyst- is to speed up the chemical raaction. Example: Heat to boil water.

Enzymes- are made up of protein.

Active site of an enzyme- is a region on the enzyme to which the reactants bind in order to make the products.
Active site of an Enzymes are U shaped enzyme bonds to the substrates, promoting reaction between substrates.

Characteristics of Enzymes * Most of enzymes are made up of protein (some R.N.A. enzymes) * Specific (Per Chemical Reaction) * They have active sites where the chemical reactions happen. * Catalysts by lowering the activation of energy. * When bound to substrates, enzymes temporarly and not permanently change their shapes of their active sites. This characteristic allows the enzyme to recycle.

What enviromental factors influence enzyme activity? * PH (Neutral PH is 7) * Heat (temprature) * Ionic Strength (Salt)


Humans have 46 chromosome. They are located in the cell nucleus. Chromosomes are made up of DNA