Biology is the study of life
Language of Science-
Hypothesis: Proposed explanations for a narrow set of observations based on prior background information
Theory: Powerful explanations for a broad range of observations, strongly supported by many different lines of evidence
Ex: Evolutionary Theory, Gravitational Theory, Atomic Theory, Plate Tectonics
Law: Known laws of the world that can be proven but not explained Law of Gravity, Law of
Evidence: An observation that supports or refutes a proposed explanation. The more expected your claim is the less evidence required
Line of Evidence- Drawn from one type of test or observation.
Proof: Science accepts ideas based off of the evidence that is available. It doesn’t prove anything.
Observation/Law/ Date/Fact/ Evidence- What you can see or measure
Hypotheses/ Theories- Ideas that attempt to explain what you can see
Behavioral characteristics are based in an attempt to stay organized- fight entropy and fight homeostasis. Homeostasis is a set of conditions or balance at which their systems and metabolism will function
1 Require energy and nutrients. Energy comes from the chemical bonds, nutrients come from atoms in the food we eat. All the energy originated from the sun. Energy flows from the sun and is used or lost (or passed on to next trophic level). All the nutrients come from the mostly closed system of planet Earth being cycled around.
2 Sense their internal and external environments
3 Respond to stimuli
4 Reproduce to pass on genes
Genes are segments of DNA that include the instruction manuals for producing proteins, which determine a particular trait by controlling our metabolism (all the chemical reactions that happen in a cell)
DNA controls the structure, function and organization through protein synthesis
DNA is a nucleic acid macromolecule depicted as a double-helix according to x-ray crystallography. It is made up of nucleotides which consist of base pairs connected by sugar molecules and a phosphorous backbone.
DNA is transcripted into mRNA which goes out into the cytoplasm to the ribosome where it is translated. Codons are matched up with their anti-codons to form amino-acid chains which are read by the genetic code
Purines- Double-ringed A and G
Pyrimidines- Single-ringed C and T
Adenine and Thymine are double bonded
Cytosine and Guanine are triple bonded
Runs from 5’ Carbon, has extra sugar molecule attached, to 3’ Carbon
Start Codons AUG- Methionine
Stop Codons UAA, UAG, UGA
Amino acids held together by peptide bonds forming a polypeptide (protein)
R-groups are the primary structure of the protein determining its function mRNA- Carries DNA outside of nucleus into cytoplasm and to ribosome for translation rRNA- Located at ribosome and lineup codon with anti-codons as well as speed up bonding of the amino acids tRNA- Carry amino acids to ribosome
Cytoskeleton- protein fibers giving cell their structure, allowing them to move
Collagen- The most common structural protein in our body
Many neurotransmitters, receptors, and hormones are proteins
Cancer is irregular cell growth
Red blood cells get into crescent shape is called sickle-cell anemia
Hemoglobin carries oxygen on blood cells
Mutation- Random changes in the DNA sequence
Traits are passed from one generation to the next through inheritance, a sperm fertilizes a female egg to form a diploid zygote sexually or through cloning asexually.
Chromosomes are tightly bundled DNA around a protein named histone, It is the “hereditary unit” found in cells, only found during cell division
Chromatin is a single unwound DNA and occur when a cell is functioning.
Nucleosome- The units of DNA