Sunlight is the main energy source for life on Earth. Of all the suns energy that hits the Earths surface less than 3 percent is used by living things.
Some types of organisms rely on the energy stored in inorganic chemical compounds. For instance, mineral water that flows underground or boils out of a hot spring and undersea vents is loaded with chemical energy.
Autotrophs: organism that can capture energy from sunlight or chemicals and use it to produce its own food from inorganic compounds, also called a producer.
Energy from the sun, photosynthesis: these autotrophs use light energy to power chemical reactions that convert carbon dioxide and water in to oxygen and energy-rich carbohydrates such as sugars and starches.
Photosynthesis process in plants: Carbon Dioxide+ water (arrow with light energy) carbohydrates+ oxygen
Chemosynthesis: when organisms use chemical energy to produce carbohydrates.
Chemosynthesis process in sulfur bacteria: Bacteria cell(inside) Hydrogen sulfide and oxygen, forming sulfur compounds(arrow, chemical energy)cells make carbohydrates using carbon dioxide from sea water.
Consumer: organism that relies on other organisms for its energy and food supply, also called a heterotroph
Herbivore: organism that obtains energy by eating only plants(producers)
Carnivore: organism that obtains energy by eating animals
Omnivore: organism that obtains energy by eating both plants and animals
Dertritivores: an organism that feeds on plant and animal remains and other dead matter.
Decomposers: organism that breaks down and obtains energy from dead organic matter
Energy flows through an ecosystem in one direction, from the sun or inorganic compounds to autotrophs(producers) and then to various heterotrophs(consumers)
Food chain: the energy stored by a producers can be passed through an ecosystem along a food chain, a series of steps in which organisms transfer energy by eating and being eaten.
Food chain one way flow in the ocean: algae-zooplankton-small fish-squid-shark
Food webs: network of complex interactions formed by the feeding relationships among the various organisms in an ecosystem
Trophic level: step in a food chain or food web
Ecological pyramid: diagram that shows the relative amounts of energy or matter within each trophic level in a food chain or food web
Biomass: total amount of living things tissue within a given trophic level
Only about 10% of energy available within one trophic level is transferred to organisms in the next level between trophic levels, 90% lost(metabolism-heat,water), this is because organisms use much of the energy that they consume for life processes, such as respiration, movement, and reproduction
Unlike the one way flow of energy matter is recycled within and between ecosystems
Matter cycles through and environment, nitrogen, carbon, phosphorus,, water, link to photosynthesis and cellular respiration.
Carbon cycle: Reservoir: the oceans
Movements and conversions:photosynthesis, consumption, cellular respiration
Sunlight- photosynthesis -organic carbon-dead organisms and waste products-fossils and fossil fuels. dead organisms and waste products-root respiration-co2cycle, dead organisms and waste products, animal respiration, plant respiration, auto and factory emissions
Phosphorous cycle: reservoir: the Earths crust, in the form of PO4(phosphate)
Movements and conversions
Taken up by plants through roots-DNA(also ATP also cell membranes)
Passed from organism to organism, bound to organic molecules(e.g. DNA)
Returned to the soil in excretion and by decomposers
Water cycle: reservoir: the oceans
Movement and conversions
Evaporation: from eater surfaces to vapor
Evapotranspiration: from plants directly to vapor
Condensation: water vapor becomes a liquid
Precipitation: water falls to the ground surfaces as rain, snow, hail, or dew
Runoff: liquid moves across a landscape ;