An ecosystem includes all of the living things (plants, animals and organisms) in a given area, interacting with each other, and also with their non-living environments (weather, earth, sun, soil, climate, atmosphere).In an ecosystem, each organism has its’ own role to play. Usually, biotic members of an ecosystem, together with their abiotic factors depend on each other. This means the absence of one member, or one abiotic factor can affect all parties of the ecosystem. A new organism or physical factor, can distort the natural balance of the interaction and potentially harm or destroy the ecosystem. As ecosystems are defined by the network of interactions among organisms, and between organisms and their environment, they can be of any size but usually encompass specific, limited spaces.
Biomes are very large areas on the earth’s surface, with animals and plants adapting to their environment. Biomes are often defined by abiotic factors such as climate, relief, geology, soils and vegetation. A biome is NOT an ecosystem. If you take a closer look, you will notice that different plants or animals in a biome have similar adaptations that make it possible for them to exist in that area. There are many major biomes on earth.
Different Types of Biome:-
1. Desert:-The Sahara Desert is the world’s largest desert, located in North Africa. Very hot and dry with very little rain.
2. Tropical Forests:- Found near the equator in Central and South America, parts of Africa and Asia. Hot, humid with equatorial climate and biggest biodiversity. Almost half of the world’s species (plants and animals) live there. The trees are mostly hardwood.
3. Savannah:- Found in Central Africa (Kenya, Zambia, Tanzania), northern Australia and central South America (Venezuela and Brazil). Hot and dry, mainly grass, scrub and occasional trees. This biome has two distinct seasons — a dry season and a rainy season. During the dry season the vegetation dies and re-appears rapidly during the rainy season.
4. Mediterranean:-Found in Mediterranean Sea, near Cape Town in South Africa and Melbourne in Australia. The climate of this biome is not too hot or cold.
5. Temperate Grasslands:- Mainly found in the Puszta in Hungary, the Veldt in South Africa, the Pampas in Argentina and the Prairies in the USA. Many grass and trees with little large bushes. Climates are temperate continental with mild weather and moderate rainfall.
6. Temperate deciduous Forest:- Found usually across Europe and USA contain trees that lose their leaves. These have a temperate maritime climate, usually with mild and wet weather.
7. Coniferous: Found in Scandinavia, Russia and Canada. Have Evergreen trees, cool climate with moderate rainfall.
8. Mountain:-These areas can be very cold at night and during winter. Trees usually do not grow at higher levels. About 80 per cent of our planet's fresh water originates in the mountains.
9. Tundra:- Surrounds the North and South poles. Extremely cold climate, temperatures often reaching about -50°F in the winter, supporting only a few plants and animals. Tundra covers about one-fifth of the Earth's land surface.
All living things need to feed to get energy to grow, move and reproduce. But what do these living things feed on? Smaller insects feed on green plants, and bigger animals feed on smaller ones and so on. This feeding relationship in an ecosystem is called a food chain. Food