Biology EOC Study Outlines Essay

Submitted By Katrina-Siason
Words: 1262
Pages: 6

Biology EOC Study Session 1
SC.912.L.14.52, SC.912.L.18.1, SC.912.L.16.1, SC.912.L.15.8
The Immune System, Macromolecules, Introduction to Genetics, The Origin of

SC.912.L.14.52 ­ The Immune System
Explain the basic function of the human immune systems, including specific and nonspecific immune response, vaccines, and antibiotics. Edgenuity notes:
● Illnesses can be caused by several factors including being exposed to viruses and bacteria. ● There are three components of the immune system: physical barriers, chemical barriers, and biological barriers.
○ Physical barriers
■ Your first line of defense is your skin.
● Your skin helps keep moisture inside.
● It keeps out all the microorganisms that are surrounding us.
● The skin is made of closely packed cells.
● Skin is tough, flexible, and waterproof.
■ Reflexes/ behaviors can also keep pathogens out of your system.
● Coughing
● Sneezing
● Watering eyes
○ Chemical barriers
■ Skin secretions
● Acid
● Oil
● Antibacterial substance
■ Mouth, eyes, and nose secretions
● Saliva, tears, and mucus
○ Lysozyme­ a substance found in saliva, tears, and mucus that destroys the cell wall of bacteria
○ Biological barriers
■ Langerhans cells­ specialized cells in the skin that identify pathogens that enter the body and carry them to the lymph nodes for destruction.
■ Complement system­ a group of proteins in the blood that detects pathogens that have entered the body.
● Cause inflammation­ the swelling of the part of the body accompanied by redness, heat, and pain as a response to an infection ● Attract killer T cells

● Attack themselves to pathogens and sometimes kill them
■ White blood cells(leukocytes)­ the components of blood that help protect against pathogens and help in blood clotting when injuries are sustained.
● Phagocytes(macrophages)­ a type of white blood cell that engulfs, destroys, and digests pathogens such as bacteria in the body.
● Lymphocytes­ a type of white blood cell that protects the body from pathogens by producing antibodies
○ B lymphocytes
■ Produced and developed in the bone marrow.
■ Activated by antigens in the body.
■ Produces antibodies.
■ Keeps antigen information for future infections.
○ T lymphocytes
■ Produced in the bone marrow and developed in the thymus. ■ Helper T cells activate B lymphocyte cells to produce antibodies.
■ Helper T cells activate cytotoxic/killer T cells.
● Killer/cytotoxic T cells destroy pathogens and infected cells.
The immune system protects the body against pathogens.
○ Pathogens­ agents that can cause infection or disease
■ Bacteria
■ Viruses
■ Chemical substances
■ Other foreign materials
There are specific and nonspecific immune responses.
○ Nonspecific immune response include:
■ Complement system
■ Skin
■ Coughing and sneezing
■ Acids, oils, and antibacterial substances
■ Fever
■ Inflammation
■ Phagocytes(macrophages)
○ Specific immune response:
■ Attacks specific harmful substances.
● Lymphocytes
● Antibodies destroy and immobilize pathogens.
Compromised immune system
○ Allergic disorders­ immune system overreacts to an antigen
○ Immunodeficiency disorders­ part of the immune system does not function properly ○

Autoimmune disorders­ the body’s immune system attacks its healthy cells, mistaking them for pathogens
○ Cancers of the immune system­ masses of cancer cells form and steal nutrients from healthy cells
Medicine­ a drug or substance used to treat an injury or an illness
There are different ways a body can respond to medicine:
○ The body is healed from the illness.
■ Medicine kills pathogens.
● Antibiotics
● Antiparasitic
● Antifungal
○ Symptoms of the illness are managed.
■ Pain relievers
■ Anti­inflammation
■ Antivirals
■ Antihistamines
● Histamines are chemicals that increase the flow of blood and fluids to the affected area as a part of the inflammatory response.
○ Body builds immunity­