Essay on Biology Evolution

Submitted By duncantwallace
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Evolution Study Guide-

1. The peppered moth used to be mainly while. When the industrial revolution hit in the 1800’sthe air pollution turned the trees dark. The white moths no longer blended in with the trees, the black moths did therefore the white moths then got eaten by the birds.

2. Industrial Melanism was important because… * Evolution is on is an interaction between organisms * Evolution is dependent on genetic change * Shows variation.

3. Gorges Lavier developed science of paleontology.
Lamark created law of use or disuse, and law of inheritance of acquired characteristics
Charles Darwin developed: * Maltus Essay * Selective Breeding * Lyells Book * Darwins Personal Observations

4. Lamarck’s theory was that the characteristics of an organism developed through use and could be passed on to offspring. Ex. Giraffes long necks.

5. Lamarcks theory was rejected because acquired characteristics cannot be inherited. All experiments failed. Ex: mice organisms cannot change its structures

6. 4 sources that contributed to Darwins revolution are: * Maltus Essay * Selective Breeding * Lyells Book * Darwins Personal Observations

7. Points of Darwins theory: * Overproduction * Competition (struggle for existence) * Adoptations * Natural Selection (survival of the fittest) * Speculation (origon of new species) * Variations 8. Major weakness in darwins theory is the inability to account for the mechanisms of inheritance of traits. Ex: fertile soil can influence height difference in plants.

9. Lamarcks and Darwins theories:

Similarities: Believed evolution was related to a change in the environment.

Differences: Lamarck believed that individuals evolved while Darwin believed that evolution occurred within a population.
Lamarck believed that variations occurred after the environment changed. Darwin believed that variations were always present and when the environment changed those organisms with the most suitable variations for the new environment survived while those with the less suitable variations died off.

10. Fossil records compiled from rock layers all around the world show changes in life forms. The oldest fossil record contains fossils of very simple organisms.

11. Relative dating is examining layers of sedimentary rocks which gives the relative ago of fossils. Relative age is determined by a fossils position in the sedimentary layers.

12. Absolute dating of the fossil or rock in which the fossil is found as absolute age. The method is based on the rate of radioactive decay in isotopes of the particular elements. Geologists have calculated the ratios of isotopes and their decay products as they exist after certain time lapses. These ratios can be used to determine the age of the fossil

13. Hardy-Weingburg law is a concept that is employed to discover whether or not evolution is occurring in a population. The law states that under certain conditions, allele frequencies will remain constant in a gene pool and there will be no evolution.

14. Five Conditions: * Population must be large * No immigration/emigration * Nutations must not occur * Reproduction must be random * Equal viability, fertility and mating ability of all genotypes.

15. Hardy- Weinberg law determines the frequency and alleles and genotypes in a population.

17. Mechanisms for variation include (1) mutations which occurs in gene cell and alters DNA. (2) Genetic drift which in large populations genes expressed will be very much like the parent generation because the large numbers will even out any change effects. But in very small populations the frequencies of particular alleles can be affected very drastically be chance alone. (3) Gene Flow which is the movement of new alleles into a gene pool and the movement of genes out of a gene pool.