Summarize Chapter 1. Include the following concepts: Darwin and natural selection, Characterization of life and the hierarchy of life, general cell types and the process of the scientific method.
Chapter one consists on evolution and the fundamentals of biology. For example on November 1859 Charles Robert Darwin published the Origin of species a book he wrote about natural selection. Natural selection by definition is a process where individuals that have certain inheritable traits tend to survive and reproduce at higher rates than other individuals because of those traits. Charles Darwin advocated two main points that “species have arisen from the succession of ancestors that differed from them, decent with modification.” The other point was natural selection; he observed from studying finch birds in the Galapagos Island that individuals in a population vary in their traits. Populations can reproduce more offspring that can survive thus competition is inevitable. Species generally are adapted to their environment.
In order for a something to be considered living it must consist of certain properties for example all living things reproduce all living things have cells and all living things adapt to their environment.
The way we classify the diversity of life in three domains which are Domain Bacteria, Domain Archaea, and Domain Eukarya. Domain Bacteria consist of prokaryotes. Doman Archaea also consist of prokaryotes and Domain Eukarya consist of 5 kingdoms plantae, fungi, protists, and kingdom animalia. Another nomenclature that we use to classify life is a hierarchy that begins at the macro-level with a Biosphere which is a mosaic of things; all life on Earth and all the places where life exists.
Ecosystem includes all living things in a particular area with non living things. Ecosystems interact with abiodic and biotic factors for example grasslands, coral reefs, and deciduous forest are ecosystems. Communities are an array of organisms inhabiting a particular area different species interacting with each other. Population is all individuals of the same species living within the bounds of a specified area. Organisms are individual living things for example one maple tree or one frog. Within an organism there exists organ system and organs and organ system for example is your digestive system that is composted of organs like the small intestine and the large intestine. Tissue is a group of cells a “cluster of cells.” Cells are the unit of structure and function some organisms are single celled and some are multi-cellular organisms. Organelles are within the cell for example the mitochondria which are considered the energy source of the cell. Molecules are chemical structures consisting of two or more atoms and lastly the atom.
There are two cell types prokaryotic and eukaryotic
Prokaryotic cells lack a nucleus or other membrane enclosed organelles for example archaea that live in extreme environments.
Eukaryotic which are true cells because that contain a membrane enclosed organelles. The scientific method is based on
Forming hypotheses from the observation
Questions that can and cannot be addressed by science
Conduct a study to test the hypothesis
Analyze data and communicate your results with other scientists.
Describe the properties and arrangement of subatomic particles. Describe covalent, ionic and hydrogen bonds. What are ions and isomers? Describe the properties of water and how hydrogen bonds are involved.
Subatomic particles consists of
Protons- positively charged Neutrons- neutrally charged
Electrons- are negatively charged
Covalent bonds form when atoms share electrons to fulfill the valence shell (the last shell to achieve a stable atom)
Ionic bonds form when atoms atom give or take (transfer) of electrons to fulfill the valence shell.