Essay on Biology Notes

Submitted By LindseyWalchli22
Words: 1064
Pages: 5

VOCAB: Primary Consumer: Herbivores, which eat plants & other primary producers. Secondary Consumer: Carnivores that eat herbivores. Tertiary Consumer: Carnivores that eat other carnivores. Primary Producer: The trophic level that ultimately supports all others consists of autotraphs. Food Chain: The pathway along which food energy is transferred from trophic level to trophic level, beginning with producers. Food Web: The interconnected feeding relationships in an ecosystem. Carnivore: An animal that mainly eats other animals. Herbivore: An animal that mainly eats plants or algae. Heterotroph: An organism that obtains organic food molecules by eating other organisms or substances derived from them. Omnivore: An animal that regularly eats animals as well as plants or algae. Nitrogen Cycle: The natural process by which decomposed organic material, is converted by soil bacteria to compounds assimilated by plants. Trophic Structure: The different feeding relationships in an ecosystem, which determine the route of energy flow and the pattern of chemical cycling.
*Cells are the basic structural and functional units of every organism
*All cells have: Plasma Membrane(allows passage of enough oxygen, nutrients, and wastes to service the entire cell), DNA(has instructions to make proteins), Cytoplasm(everything between the plasma membrane & nucleus, Ribosomes(location of protein synthesis)
*Prokaryotic= DNA, Ribosomes, Cytoplasm (can’t do many things at once) DNA is in a circle shape- they are structurally simpler than Eukaryote: No membrane bound organelles, NO nucleus, DNA in an unbound nucleus thus being Nucleoid, Cytoplasm bound by the plasma membrane.
*Eukaryote= Subdivided to perform multiple tasks: have a true nucleus
*DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)= the chromosomes have almost all of the cell’s genetic material. The division of cells to form new cells.
* 4 Kingdoms of Eukarya=
* Active Learners= read books & complete assignments, prepared to learn, on time, alert & and wear expression of interest, make connections between lectures, practice using new vocabulary.
*pH means: A measure of hydrogen ion concentrations equal –log (H+) and ranging in value from 0 to 14. (0 Acidic: battery acid, lemon juice, 7 Neutral: water, human blood, 14 Basic: milk of magnesia, oven cleaner
* Water Cycle: evaporation of liquid water by solar energy, condensation of water vapor into clouds, and precipitation. Transpiration by terrestrial plants moves large volumes of water to the ecosystem. Surface and ground water flow can return water to the oceans. - water is essential to all organisms & it influences the rates of ecosystem processes
*Carbon Cycle: Photosynthesis by plants & phytoplankton removes substantial amounts of atmospheric CO2 each year. CO2 added to the atmosphere through cellular respiration by producers & consumers (burning of fossil fuels & wood adds significant amounts of CO2 to the atmosphere). -carbon forms the framework of the organic molecules essential to all organisms
*Nitrogen Cycle: major way for nitrogen to enter the ecosystem is nitrogen fixation. (lightening, fertilizers) - plants use ammonium and nitrate. Animals can only use organic forms of nitrogen
* Organelles serve two major functions: 1) to compartmentalize cellular metabolism and 2) to increase the membrane surface area for membrane-bound biochemical reactions.
* Endosymbiotic origin of mitochondria & chloroplasts: according to this theory, the proposed ancestors of mitochondria were oxygen-using nonphotosynthetic prokaryotes, while the proposed ancestors of chloroplasts were photosynthetic prokaryotes.
*Endomembrane System: The organelles of the endomembrane system manufacture & distribute cell products. 1)Nucleus 2) Endoplasmic Reticulum 3)Transport Vesicles 4)Golgi Apparatus 5)Transport Vesicles, lysosomes, vacuole, plasma membrane.
PARTS OF CELL: Plasma Membrane: Outermost membrane DNA:…