blood flow through heart. superior and inferior vena cava righty atrium tricupsid valve, right ventricle, pulmonary valve, pulmonary trunk, pulmonary arteries, lungs, pulmonary veins, left atrium, bicvuspid valve, left ventricle, aortic valve, left ventricle.
heart contraction: SA node, pacemaker, blood pressure, force exerted by blood as it moves through blood vessels normal: 120/80 mm Hg systolic pressure: first number heart contracts diastolic pressure second number heart relaxes heart rate pulse: caused by contraction ofventricles average pulse rate: 72 beats per minute
The respiratory system air enters through the mouth/nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli
lungs: large, cone shaped organs composed of alveoli
alveoli tiny clusters ofair sacs where gases are exchanged
diaphram, muscle between thoracic and abdominal cavities that aids in breathing
alimentary canal: mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum
accessory organs: salivary glands, liver, pancreas
Mechanical digestion: occurs in mouth and stomach chemical digestion: occurs in mouth, stomach, and small intestine mouth: amylase breaks down starches stomach:pepsin breaks down proteins; requires HCI acid to become active. lipases and other enzymessecreted by pancreas complete diagram
absorption occurs in primary in the small and large intestine small intestine absorbs nutrients large intestine absorbs water.
excretion: process that rids the body of toxic chemicals, excess water, salts, and carbon dioxide.
Organs of excretion
Lungs and kidneys: filter blod
Nephrons: tiny tubes in the kidneys with cupshaped capsules surrounding a tight ball ofcapilliaries that filter wastes from blood while maintaining useful molecule forms urine
41.1 nonspecific defenses
first line mucous membranes made of epithelial tissue line cavities and tubes that open to the outside of the body secrete musus lined with cilia skin second line inflammatory response: events that suppress infection and speed up recoverey injured/infected cells release histamine, which causes local blood vessels…