Essay on Biology: Protein and Main Organic Molecules

Submitted By lauraanne04
Words: 999
Pages: 4

Unit 2 Lecture Study Guide
1) What are the parts of an atom? Where are the subatomic particles found?
An atom is made up of the central nucleus and the electron cloud. The protons and neutrons are found in the nucleus, while the electrons are in the electron cloud.

2) How does the Atomic Mass # differ from the Atomic #?
The atomic mass number is the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus. Because the neutrons have no charge, they have very little weight. The atomic number is the number of protons in the nucleus.

3) What is an isotope? Give an example (show how it is an isotope).
Isotopes are atoms of the same element that have different mass numbers due to a different number of neutrons. For example, Carbon 13 is an isotope because it has 7 neutrons and 6 protons in the nucleus.

4) Compare and contrast the 3 basic types of chemical bonds and give an example of each.
The 3 basic types of chemical bonds are ionic, covalent, and hydrogen. Ionic bonds are when atoms gain or lose electrons, covalent bonds are when atoms share electrons, and hydrogen bonds occur when the negative side of one polar molecule meets the positive side of another polar molecule. The bonds are similar because they all involve the smallest unit of matter, atoms, and they all focus on the valence electrons.

5) Why is pH important in Anatomy? pH is important to anatomy because our bodies have to function at a stable pH. Many tasks cannot be performed if our body fluids are to acidic or to basic.

6-9) Name the 4 main Organic Molecules in Biochemistry. Describe each one, and provide an example. What are the “building blocks” of each molecule? For example, protein = Amino Acid.
The 4 main organic molecules in biochemistry are proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids. Carbohydrates contain an equal ratio of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen of about 1:2:1. Monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides are all different forms of carbohydrates. An example includes sugar. Lipids are hydrophobic molecules that contain mostly carbon and hydrogen. The different types of lipids include fatty acids, eicosanoids, glycerids, steroids, phospholipids, and glycolipids. An example is fats. Proteins are made up of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen. They are very abundant in the human body. Proteins are made up of amino acids, and an example is an enzyme. Nucleic acids are large molecules that store information. They are made up of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and phosphorus. DNA and RNA are both types of nucleic acids. 10) There are 4 levels of protein structure. What are the levels? How do the levels of a protein differ in structure and function? The four levels of protein structure include primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary. Primary structure is the linear sequence of amino acids. All the properties of the protein come from the primary structure and the ability to fold into the following structure is encoded in this sequence as well. The secondary structure comes from the non-covalent bonds between amino acids. The alpha helix and beta strand are the two main types of secondary structure and are repeated throughout the chain. The tertiary structures are three-dimensional and are of a single polypeptide chain. These structures are just different combinations of the secondary structures. Motifs and domains are the subdivided portions of the tertiary structure. The quaternary structures are two or more polypeptide chains that bind together. 11) Describe the structure of ATP and why it is important? The structure of an ATP molecule consists a phosphorylated nucleotide and is made up of 3 phosphates, a pentose-ribose-sugar and a nitrogenous base-adenine. ATP is important because it is necessary for life. It provides the cells with energy in order for them to carry out their functions.

12) Why is the plasma membrane important to…