Biology Questions Chapter 2 Essay

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Chapter 2
The difference between heterotrophs and autotrophs is that heterotrophs (animals and fungi- e.g. Kangaroos) are organisms which cannot produce their own food so therefore must eat or ingest other organisms and autotroph (plants and cyanobacteria) are organisms that can make their own food.
Photosynthesis- carbon dioxide + water (light on chlorophyll) glucose + oxygen
Light reactions occur in the grana of chloroplasts where light energy is absorbed by chlorophyll driving a transfer of electrons to form energy molecules ATP and NADPH (formed from NADP plus hydrogen-higher in energy). Dark reactions (Calvin cycle) occur in the stroma of the chloroplasts. High energy ATP and NADPH molecules supply energy to join H+ and CO2 to form a glucose molecule.
ADP + P + energy  ATP (light phase) ATP  ADP + P
ATP is often called the energy currency molecule of the cell. In a cell, ATP molecules enable living thing to store energy in a form that is ready to be used when required.
Cuticle- waxy waterproof layer covering the leaf surface that reduces the evaporation of water from a leaf.
Palisade chlorophyll- densely packed photosynthetic cells that are packed with chloroplast is the main site of photosynthesis.
Spongy mesophyll- loosely packed photosynthetic cells that are main area for gas exchange and site of photosynthesis.
Stomata- are openings in the epidermis and the location of where gases enter and leave the leaf.
Chloroplasts- organelle found in mesophyll that carries out photosynthesis.
The vascular tissue or bundle contains xylem and phloem tissues in a plant. Xylem carries water to leaves. Phloem carries sucrose from leaves to other parts of the plants.
Plants are called producers because they are autotrophs, producing their own food but also producing food for heterotrophs that rely on plants for survival. Since they don’t rely on other organisms for energy, they are said to be at the beginning of food chains.
Algae living in water, mosses living in moist places growing only 1-2 cm where flowering plants live in different places growing to 30 cm or more. Algae absorb moisture directly into their cells and have no vascular tissue. Moss absorbs moisture through their rhizoids passing it from to cell to cell up the plant, which also contains no vascular tissue. Flowering plants contain vascular tissue and use that to absorb sunlight and moisture etc…
Three adaptations found in desert plants are larger surface area at the site of water uptake, waxy surfaces of cuticle and spines. Larger surface area at site of water uptake allows greatest amount of water to enter the plant. Waxy coating reduces water loss (evaporation). Spines to discourage animals from eating plants for water.
The diets of carnivores, herbivores and omnivores differ noticeably. A herbivore’s diet consists of completely plant material, a carnivore’s diet consists of animal protein, lipids and some carbohydrates, and an omnivore’s diet includes both animal and plant material.
Carbohydrates- glucose, potatoes and grains (rice and wheat) and grass
Fats- lipids solid at room temperature- butter, grease and lard (saturated) and peanut oil an cod liver oil (unsaturated)
Protein- hormones and antibodies
Teeth in organisms break down food into pieces to increase the surface-area-to-volume ratio.

What medium carries the oxygen? (air/water)
What are the openings through which the medium enters the body
Spiracles (openings in body)
What body movements need to occur to get the medium into the body?
The frog lowers the floor of its mouth causing expansion. Then nostrils open to allow air to enter.
In flying insects, movement of flight muscles to ventilate their tracheal system. Other insects use rhythmic body movement of abdomen moving in and out.

Name the major respiratory organ
Where does gas exchange take place?
Surface on the lining of the mouth