Biology Review For the Final Essay

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Biology Review For the Final: Total 75-100 MCQ
Please review all the terminology involved with these topics
Ch 2:Water molecule structure - polarity
Properties due to polarity - Hydrogen bonds
Specific heat
Universal solvent
How these properties are helpful for life (animal & plants) Enzymes - Mechanism of action Activation energy Exothermic & endothermic reactions with & without enzymes Ch 3,4,5: Ecology: Energy flow, cycles of matter Biotic & abiotic factors , The Niche, Community interactions, Ecological Succession – Primary & secondary Population growth – Exponential & logistic Limits to growth Human population growth Ch 7 Cell : Prokaryotic & Eukaryotic Cell Animal & Plant Cell Cell Organelles & their function
Ch 8 : Photosynthesis Structure of choloroplast Mechanism, Cemical equation Reactant involved, Product formed Light reaction- Photolysis, Electron transport chain & chemiosmosis Chmiosmosis Factors affecting Photosynthesis.
Ch 9: Cellular respiration Structure of Mitochondria Glycolysis & Kreb’s cycle ATP molecule, Electron transport Chain & Chemiosmosis. Ch 10 : Cell growth & division
What limits the cell size?
The larger a cell becomes, the more demands the cell places on its DNA and the more trouble the cell has to move enough nutrients and waste across the cell membrane
Mitosis – different stages
Prophase: Chromosomes become visible. Centrioles move to opposite ends of the chromosomes near the nuclear envelope and start making spindle fibers. At the end, the nucleolus disappears and the nuclear envelope breaks down.
Metaphase: Chromosomes line up across the cell and microtubules connect the centromeres of each chromosome to the two poles of the spindle
Anaphase: The centromeres split, allowing the two sister chromatids to become individual chromosomes. The chromosomes split into to two groups near the poles of the spindle.
Telophase: The chromosomes begin to disperse into a tangle of dense material. Nuclear envelopes reform around each cluster. Spindles begin to break apart, and nucleolus becomes visible. Mitosis is complete
Meiosis --- Different stages
Cell growth regulation
Compare : Prophase I of Meiosis & Mitosis Metaphase I of Meiosis & Mitosis Anaphase I of Meiosis & Mitosis Cytokinesis in Animal & plant cell Ch 11: Laws of Heredity
Punnett square:
Punnett squares use the principle of probability, or the likelihood that a particular event will occur, to predict the outcomes of genetic crosses.
Punnett Square: A 2x2 diagram that predicts the possible genetic outcomes and their probability

Monohybrid & Dihybrid cross Ch 12: DNA & RNA
Nucleotide – basic unit of DNA & RNA
Nucleotide: Basic unit of DNA and RNA.
Nucleotides have three components: a 5-carbon sugar called deoxyribose (or ribose when in RNA), a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base
Two types of Nucleotides:
1. Purines: Nitrogenous Bases are Adenine and Guanine; Have two rings in structure
2. Pyrimidines: Nitrogenous Bases are Cytosine and Thymine (or Uracil when in RNA); Have one ring in structure

Difference between DNA & RNA
1. The sugar in RNA is ribose instead of deoxyribose
2. RNA is single stranded whereas DNA is double stranded
3. RNA contains Uracil instead of Thymine

Structure of DNA
Chromatin: DNA and protein tightly packed together to form this substance.
Histones: DNA tightly coiled around proteins
Nucleosome: DNA and histones together to make a bead-like structure
These nucleosome fibers are dispersed into the nucleus so they are not visible for most of the cell cycle. During mitosis the nucleosomes tightly pack together to make chromosomes.

DNA replication
During DNA replication, the DNA molecule separates into two strands, then produces two new complementary strands